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Science. 2020 Jan 17;367(6475):266-272. doi: 10.1126/science.aay5055.

On impact and volcanism across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

Author information

1
Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA. pincelli.hull@yale.edu.
2
Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, 30655 Hannover, Germany.
3
Department of Geology and Geophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511, USA.
4
GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, 14473 Potsdam, Germany.
5
Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.
6
National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK.
7
International Ocean Discovery Program, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845, USA.
8
Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra and Instituto Universitario de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza, Spain.
9
Géosciences Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes, France.
10
Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
11
Department of Geosciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
12
CEREGE, Université Aix-Marseille, 13545 Aix en Provence, France.
13
Institute for Rock Magnetism, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
14
Institut für Planetologie, Universität Münster, 48149 Münster, Germany.
15
MARUM - Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
16
Institute of Earth Sciences, Heidelberg University, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
17
Institut für Geophysik und Geologie, Universität Leipzig, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
18
School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9XP, UK.
19
Department of Geology & Geophysics, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA.
20
Department of Biogeochemical Systems, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, 07745 Jena, Germany.
21
Department of Earth Sciences, Waseda University, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050, Japan.
22
Department of Geosciences, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA.
23
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
24
ConocoPhillips Company, Houston, TX 77079, USA.
25
Department of Geological Sciences and Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309, USA.
26
School of Environment, Earth and Ecosystem Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK.
27
Harvard Society of Fellows, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
28
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
29
Department of Stratigraphy, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
30
Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
31
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459, USA.
32
National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba, 305-0005, Japan.
33
Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

The cause of the end-Cretaceous mass extinction is vigorously debated, owing to the occurrence of a very large bolide impact and flood basalt volcanism near the boundary. Disentangling their relative importance is complicated by uncertainty regarding kill mechanisms and the relative timing of volcanogenic outgassing, impact, and extinction. We used carbon cycle modeling and paleotemperature records to constrain the timing of volcanogenic outgassing. We found support for major outgassing beginning and ending distinctly before the impact, with only the impact coinciding with mass extinction and biologically amplified carbon cycle change. Our models show that these extinction-related carbon cycle changes would have allowed the ocean to absorb massive amounts of carbon dioxide, thus limiting the global warming otherwise expected from postextinction volcanism.

PMID:
31949074
DOI:
10.1126/science.aay5055

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