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Protoplasma. 2018 Jun 20. doi: 10.1007/s00709-018-1278-1. [Epub ahead of print]

Histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of enzymes involved in phenolic metabolism during berry development in Vitis vinifera L.

Author information

1
Área de Biología Celular, Departamento de Anatomía, Biología Celular y Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06006, Badajoz, Spain.
2
Departamento de Hortofruticultura, Instituto de Investigaciones Agrarias Finca "La Orden-Valdesequera", CICYTEX, Junta de Extremadura, Guadajira, 06187, Badajoz, Spain.
3
Departamento de Enología, INTAEX, CICYTEX, Junta de Extremadura, 06071, Badajoz, Spain.
4
Área de Biología Celular, Departamento de Anatomía, Biología Celular y Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06006, Badajoz, Spain. morcillo@unex.es.

Abstract

Phenolics are involved in many of plants' biological functions. In particular, they play important roles in determining the quality of grape berries and the wine made from them, and can also act as antioxidants with beneficial effects for human health. Several enzymes are involved in the synthesis of phenolic compounds. Among them, stilbene synthase (STS) is a key to the biosynthesis of stilbenes, which are considered to be important secondary metabolites in plants. Other enzymes, such as polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), are involved in the degradation of phenolics, and become activated during late stages of berry ripening. In the present study, Vitis vinifera L. berries were sampled at eight stages of development, from 10 days after anthesis to late harvest. The PPO and POD enzymatic activities were determined at each stage. The presence of STS, PPO, and POD proteins in the grape exocarp and mesocarp was detected immunohistochemically and histochemically. The amount and intensity of the immunohistochemical and histochemical signals correlate with the variations in enzyme activities throughout fruit development. Strong STS immunoreactivity was detected until the onset of ripening. Labeled tissue increased gradually from mesocarp to exocarp, showing an intense signal in epidermis. At subcellular level, STS was mainly detected in cytoplasm grains and cell walls. The amount of PPO immunoreactivity increased progressively until the end of ripening. The PPO signal was detected in hypodermal layers and, to a lesser extent, in mesocarp parenchyma cells, especially in cytoplasm grains and cell walls. Finally, POD activity was stronger at the onset of ripening, and the POD histochemical signal was mainly detected in the cell walls of both exocarp and mesocarp tissue.

KEYWORDS:

Berry development; Histochemistry; Immunohistochemistry; Peroxidase; Polyphenol oxidase; Stilbene synthase; Vitis vinifera

PMID:
29926200
DOI:
10.1007/s00709-018-1278-1

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