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Diarrhoeal disease and subsequent risk of death in infants and children residing in low-income and middle-income countries: analysis of the GEMS case-control study and 12-month GEMS-1A follow-on study.

Levine MM, Nasrin D, Acácio S, Bassat Q, Powell H, Tennant SM, Sow SO, Sur D, Zaidi AKM, Faruque ASG, Hossain MJ, Alonso PL, Breiman RF, O'Reilly CE, Mintz ED, Omore R, Ochieng JB, Oundo JO, Tamboura B, Sanogo D, Onwuchekwa U, Manna B, Ramamurthy T, Kanungo S, Ahmed S, Qureshi S, Quadri F, Hossain A, Das SK, Antonio M, Saha D, Mandomando I, Blackwelder WC, Farag T, Wu Y, Houpt ER, Verweiij JJ, Sommerfelt H, Nataro JP, Robins-Browne RM, Kotloff KL.

Lancet Glob Health. 2020 Feb;8(2):e204-e214. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30541-8. Epub 2019 Dec 18.


Monoclonal Antibody Therapy for Ebola Virus Disease.

Levine MM.

N Engl J Med. 2019 Dec 12;381(24):2365-2366. doi: 10.1056/NEJMe1915350. Epub 2019 Nov 27. No abstract available.


Determinants of linear growth faltering among children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study.

Brander RL, Pavlinac PB, Walson JL, John-Stewart GC, Weaver MR, Faruque ASG, Zaidi AKM, Sur D, Sow SO, Hossain MJ, Alonso PL, Breiman RF, Nasrin D, Nataro JP, Levine MM, Kotloff KL.

BMC Med. 2019 Nov 25;17(1):214. doi: 10.1186/s12916-019-1441-3.


Immune responses to O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) in North American adults infected with Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba.

Hossain M, Islam K, Kelly M, Mayo Smith LM, Charles RC, Weil AA, Bhuiyan TR, Kováč P, Xu P, Calderwood SB, Simon JK, Chen WH, Lock M, Lyon CE, Kirkpatrick BD, Cohen M, Levine MM, Gurwith M, Leung DT, Azman AS, Harris JB, Qadri F, Ryan ET.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Nov 19;13(11):e0007874. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007874. eCollection 2019 Nov.


Maternal Antibodies Elicited by Immunization With an O- Polysaccharide Glycoconjugate Vaccine Protect Infant Mice Against Lethal Salmonella Typhimurium Infection.

Baliban SM, Curtis B, Amin MN, Levine MM, Pasetti MF, Simon R.

Front Immunol. 2019 Sep 6;10:2124. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02124. eCollection 2019.


Crosstalk between leukocytes triggers differential immune responses against Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi.

Salerno-Goncalves R, Kayastha D, Fasano A, Levine MM, Sztein MB.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Aug 14;13(8):e0007650. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007650. eCollection 2019 Aug.


Cryptosporidium infection in rural Gambian children: Epidemiology and risk factors.

Hossain MJ, Saha D, Antonio M, Nasrin D, Blackwelder WC, Ikumapayi UN, Mackenzie GA, Adeyemi M, Jasseh M, Adegbola RA, Roose AW, Kotloff KL, Levine MM.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Jul 26;13(7):e0007607. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007607. eCollection 2019 Jul.


A tale of two bacterial enteropathogens and one multivalent vaccine.

Barry EM, Levine MM.

Cell Microbiol. 2019 Nov;21(11):e13067. doi: 10.1111/cmi.13067. Epub 2019 Jul 10.


Genetic changes associated with the temporal shift in invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars in Bamako Mali.

Bornstein K, Tennant SM, Hazen TH, Sorkin JD, Tapia MD, Sow SO, Onwuchekwa U, Levine MM, Rasko DA.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Jun 6;13(6):e0007297. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007297. eCollection 2019 Jun.


Household Costs of Diarrhea by Etiology in 7 Countries, The Global Enterics Mulitcenter Study (GEMS).

Zimmermann M, Kotloff K, Nasrin D, Roose A, Levine MM, Rheingans R, Farag T, Walker D, Pecenka C.

Open Forum Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 3;6(4):ofz150. doi: 10.1093/ofid/ofz150. eCollection 2019 Apr.


The incidence, aetiology, and adverse clinical consequences of less severe diarrhoeal episodes among infants and children residing in low-income and middle-income countries: a 12-month case-control study as a follow-on to the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS).

Kotloff KL, Nasrin D, Blackwelder WC, Wu Y, Farag T, Panchalingham S, Sow SO, Sur D, Zaidi AKM, Faruque ASG, Saha D, Alonso PL, Tamboura B, Sanogo D, Onwuchekwa U, Manna B, Ramamurthy T, Kanungo S, Ahmed S, Qureshi S, Quadri F, Hossain A, Das SK, Antonio M, Hossain MJ, Mandomando I, Acácio S, Biswas K, Tennant SM, Verweij JJ, Sommerfelt H, Nataro JP, Robins-Browne RM, Levine MM.

Lancet Glob Health. 2019 May;7(5):e568-e584. doi: 10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30076-2.


Risk factors for death among children 0-59 months of age with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in Manhiça district, southern Mozambique.

Acácio S, Mandomando I, Nhampossa T, Quintó L, Vubil D, Sacoor C, Kotloff K, Farag T, Nasrin D, Macete E, Levine MM, Alonso P, Bassat Q.

BMC Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 15;19(1):322. doi: 10.1186/s12879-019-3948-9.


Kinetics of maternally-derived serogroup A, C, Y and W-specific meningococcal immunoglobulin G in Malian women and infants.

Findlow H, Tapia MD, Sow SO, Haidara FC, Coulibaly F, Keita AM, Diallo F, Doumbia M, Traore A, Schluterman N, Clark DA, Borrow R, Levine MM.

Vaccine. 2019 Apr 24;37(18):2477-2481. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.03.045. Epub 2019 Apr 2.


Cell mediated immune responses elicited in volunteers following immunization with candidate live oral Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A attenuated vaccine strain CVD 1902.

Wahid R, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Sztein MB.

Clin Immunol. 2019 Apr;201:61-69. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2019.03.003. Epub 2019 Mar 5.


Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Newborns in Bamako, Mali.

Buchwald AG, Tamboura B, Tennant SM, Haidara FC, Coulibaly F, Doumbia M, Diallo F, Keita AM, Sow SO, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Tapia MD.

Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jan 1;70(1):59-66. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz157.


A roadmap for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli vaccine development based on volunteer challenge studies.

Levine MM, Barry EM, Chen WH.

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2019;15(6):1357-1378. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2019.1578922. Epub 2019 Mar 20.


The Controlled Human Malaria Infection Experience at the University of Maryland.

Friedman-Klabanoff DJ, Laurens MB, Berry AA, Travassos MA, Adams M, Strauss KA, Shrestha B, Levine MM, Edelman R, Lyke KE.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2019 Mar;100(3):556-565. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0476.


Colonization factors among enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea and from matched controls in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS).

Vidal RM, Muhsen K, Tennant SM, Svennerholm AM, Sow SO, Sur D, Zaidi AKM, Faruque ASG, Saha D, Adegbola R, Hossain MJ, Alonso PL, Breiman RF, Bassat Q, Tamboura B, Sanogo D, Onwuchekwa U, Manna B, Ramamurthy T, Kanungo S, Ahmed S, Qureshi S, Quadri F, Hossain A, Das SK, Antonio M, Mandomando I, Nhampossa T, Acácio S, Omore R, Ochieng JB, Oundo JO, Mintz ED, O'Reilly CE, Berkeley LY, Livio S, Panchalingam S, Nasrin D, Farag TH, Wu Y, Sommerfelt H, Robins-Browne RM, Del Canto F, Hazen TH, Rasko DA, Kotloff KL, Nataro JP, Levine MM.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Jan 4;13(1):e0007037. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007037. eCollection 2019 Jan.


Improving Our Understanding of Salmonella enterica Serovar Paratyphi B through the Engineering and Testing of a Live Attenuated Vaccine Strain.

Higginson EE, Ramachandran G, Hazen TH, Kania DA, Rasko DA, Pasetti MF, Levine MM, Tennant SM.

mSphere. 2018 Nov 28;3(6). pii: e00474-18. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00474-18.


Clinical features, risk factors, and impact of antibiotic treatment of diarrhea caused by Shigella in children less than 5 years in Manhiça District, rural Mozambique.

Vubil D, Acácio S, Quintò L, Ballesté-Delpierre C, Nhampossa T, Kotloff K, Levine MM, Alonso P, Nataro JP, Farag TH, Vila J, Mandomando I.

Infect Drug Resist. 2018 Oct 31;11:2095-2106. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S177579. eCollection 2018.


Coli Surface Antigen 26 Acts as an Adherence Determinant of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Is Cross-Recognized by Anti-CS20 Antibodies.

Cádiz L, Torres A, Valdés R, Vera G, Gutiérrez D, Levine MM, Montero DA, O'Ryan M, Rasko DA, Stine OC, Vidal R, Del Canto F.

Front Microbiol. 2018 Oct 16;9:2463. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.02463. eCollection 2018.


Manipulation of Salmonella Typhi Gene Expression Impacts Innate Cell Responses in the Human Intestinal Mucosa.

Salerno-Gonçalves R, Galen JE, Levine MM, Fasano A, Sztein MB.

Front Immunol. 2018 Nov 1;9:2543. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.02543. eCollection 2018.


Diarrhoea, enteric pathogen detection and nutritional indicators among controls in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, Kenya site: an opportunity to understand reference populations in case-control studies of diarrhoea.

Berendes DM, O'Reilly CE, Kim S, Omore R, Ochieng JB, Ayers T, Fagerli K, Farag TH, Nasrin D, Panchalingam S, Nataro JP, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Oundo J, Laserson K, Breiman RF, Mintz ED.

Epidemiol Infect. 2018 Nov 15:1-9. doi: 10.1017/S0950268818002972. [Epub ahead of print]


Morbidity and mortality due to shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea: the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2016.

Khalil IA, Troeger C, Blacker BF, Rao PC, Brown A, Atherly DE, Brewer TG, Engmann CM, Houpt ER, Kang G, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Luby SP, MacLennan CA, Pan WK, Pavlinac PB, Platts-Mills JA, Qadri F, Riddle MS, Ryan ET, Shoultz DA, Steele AD, Walson JL, Sanders JW, Mokdad AH, Murray CJL, Hay SI, Reiner RC Jr.

Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Nov;18(11):1229-1240. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30475-4. Epub 2018 Sep 25. Erratum in: Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Oct 30;:.


The Impact of Vaccination and Prior Exposure on Stool Shedding of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi in 6 Controlled Human Infection Studies.

Gibani MM, Voysey M, Jin C, Jones C, Thomaides-Brears H, Jones E, Baker P, Morgan M, Simmons A, Gordon MA, Cerundolo V, Pitzer VE, Angus B, Levine MM, Darton TC, Pollard AJ.

Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Apr 8;68(8):1265-1273. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy670.


Improved Tolerability of a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Live-Attenuated Vaccine Strain Achieved by Balancing Inflammatory Potential with Immunogenicity.

Higginson EE, Ramachandran G, Panda A, Shipley ST, Kriel EH, DeTolla LJ, Lipsky M, Perkins DJ, Salerno-Goncalves R, Sztein MB, Pasetti MF, Levine MM, Tennant SM.

Infect Immun. 2018 Nov 20;86(12). pii: e00440-18. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00440-18. Print 2018 Dec.


Typhoid fever in Santiago, Chile: Insights from a mathematical model utilizing venerable archived data from a successful disease control program.

Gauld JS, Hu H, Klein DJ, Levine MM.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Sep 6;12(9):e0006759. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006759. eCollection 2018 Sep.


Dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in intestinal Escherichia coli from children in community settings in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa.

Ingle DJ, Levine MM, Kotloff KL, Holt KE, Robins-Browne RM.

Nat Microbiol. 2018 Sep;3(9):1063-1073. doi: 10.1038/s41564-018-0217-4. Epub 2018 Aug 20.


Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Characteristics among HIV-Positive Households Participating in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study in Rural Western Kenya, 2008-2012.

Schilling KA, Awuor AO, Rajasingham A, Moke F, Omore R, Amollo M, Farag TH, Nasrin D, Nataro JP, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Ayers T, Laserson K, Blackstock A, Rothenberg R, Stauber CE, Mintz ED, Breiman RF, O'Reilly CE.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Oct;99(4):905-915. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0774.


Typhoid Fever: Way Forward.

Bhutta ZA, Gaffey MF, Crump JA, Steele D, Breiman RF, Mintz ED, Black RE, Luby SP, Levine MM.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Sep;99(3_Suppl):89-96. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0111. Epub 2018 Jul 24. Review.


Immunogenicity and Induction of Functional Antibodies in Rabbits Immunized with a Trivalent Typhoid-Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella Glycoconjugate Formulation.

Baliban SM, Allen JC, Curtis B, Amin MN, Lees A, Rao RN, Naidu G, Venkatesan R, Rao DY, Mohan VK, Ella KM, Levine MM, Simon R.

Molecules. 2018 Jul 17;23(7). pii: E1749. doi: 10.3390/molecules23071749.


Clinical, environmental, and behavioral characteristics associated with Cryptosporidium infection among children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in rural western Kenya, 2008-2012: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS).

Delahoy MJ, Omore R, Ayers TL, Schilling KA, Blackstock AJ, Ochieng JB, Moke F, Jaron P, Awuor A, Okonji C, Juma J, Farag TH, Nasrin D, Panchalingam S, Nataro JP, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Oundo J, Roellig DM, Xiao L, Parsons MB, Laserson K, Mintz ED, Breiman RF, O'Reilly CE.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Jul 12;12(7):e0006640. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006640. eCollection 2018 Jul.


Pneumonia mortality and healthcare utilization in young children in rural Bangladesh: a prospective verbal autopsy study.

Ferdous F, Ahmed S, Das SK, Chisti MJ, Nasrin D, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Nataro JP, Ma E, Muhsen K, Wagatsuma Y, Ahmed T, Faruque ASG.

Trop Med Health. 2018 May 25;46:17. doi: 10.1186/s41182-018-0099-4. eCollection 2018.


The role of HIV infection in the etiology and epidemiology of diarrheal disease among children aged 0-59 months in Manhiça District, Rural Mozambique.

Acácio S, Nhampossa T, Quintó L, Vubil D, Sacoor C, Kotloff K, Farag T, Dilruba N, Macete E, Levine MM, Alonso P, Mandomando I, Bassat Q.

Int J Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;73:10-17. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2018.05.012. Epub 2018 May 28.


Immunogenicity and efficacy following sequential parenterally-administered doses of Salmonella Enteritidis COPS:FliC glycoconjugates in infant and adult mice.

Baliban SM, Curtis B, Toema D, Tennant SM, Levine MM, Pasetti MF, Simon R.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 May 23;12(5):e0006522. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006522. eCollection 2018 May.


Determining the Best Immunization Strategy for Protecting African Children Against Invasive Salmonella Disease.

Jeon HJ, Pak GD, Im J, Owusu-Dabo E, Adu-Sarkodie Y, Gassama Sow A, Bassiahi Soura A, Gasmelseed N, Keddy KH, Bjerregaard-Andersen M, Konings F, Aseffa A, Crump JA, Chon Y, Breiman RF, Park SE, Cruz Espinoza LM, Seo HJ, May J, Meyer CG, Andrews JR, Panzner U, von Kalckreuth V, Wierzba TF, Rakotozandrindrainy R, Dougan G, Levine MM, Hombach J, Kim JH, Clemens JD, Baker S, Marks F.

Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Nov 28;67(12):1824-1830. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy386.


Lipopolysaccharide-specific memory B cell responses to an attenuated live cholera vaccine are associated with protection against Vibrio cholerae infection.

Haney DJ, Lock MD, Gurwith M, Simon JK, Ishioka G, Cohen MB, Kirkpatrick BD, Lyon CE, Chen WH, Sztein MB, Levine MM, Harris JB.

Vaccine. 2018 May 11;36(20):2768-2773. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.04.011. Epub 2018 Apr 11.


Anti-O-specific polysaccharide (OSP) immune responses following vaccination with oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR correlate with protection against cholera after infection with wild-type Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba in North American volunteers.

Islam K, Hossain M, Kelly M, Mayo Smith LM, Charles RC, Bhuiyan TR, Kováč P, Xu P, LaRocque RC, Calderwood SB, Simon JK, Chen WH, Haney D, Lock M, Lyon CE, Kirkpatrick BD, Cohen M, Levine MM, Gurwith M, Harris JB, Qadri F, Ryan ET.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Apr 6;12(4):e0006376. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006376. eCollection 2018 Apr.


The Gathering Storm: Is Untreatable Typhoid Fever on the Way?

Levine MM, Simon R.

mBio. 2018 Mar 20;9(2). pii: e00482-18. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00482-18.


T cell mediated immunity induced by the live-attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine candidate CVD 1208S in humans.

Toapanta FR, Bernal PJ, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Sztein MB.

J Transl Med. 2018 Mar 13;16(1):61. doi: 10.1186/s12967-018-1439-1.


Direct Detection of Shigella in Stool Specimens by Use of a Metagenomic Approach.

Liu J, Almeida M, Kabir F, Shakoor S, Qureshi S, Zaidi A, Li S, Tamboura B, Sow SO, Mandomando I, Alonso PL, Ramamurthy T, Sur D, Kotloff K, Nataro J, Levine MM, Stine OC, Houpt E.

J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Jan 24;56(2). pii: e01374-17. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01374-17. Print 2018 Feb.


The effect of costs on Kenyan households' demand for medical care: why time and distance matter.

Kukla M, McKay N, Rheingans R, Harman J, Schumacher J, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Breiman R, Farag T, Walker D, Nasrin D, Omore R, O'Reilly C, Mintz E.

Health Policy Plan. 2017 Dec 1;32(10):1397-1406. doi: 10.1093/heapol/czx120.


Corrigendum: In silico serotyping of E. coli from short read data identifies limited novel O-loci but extensive diversity of O:H serotype combinations within and between pathogenic lineages.

Ingle DJ, Valcanis M, Kuzevski A, Tauschek M, Inouye M, Stinear T, Levine MM, Robins-Browne RM, Holt KE.

Microb Genom. 2017 Aug 1;3(7):e000109. doi: 10.1099/mgen.0.000109. eCollection 2017 Jul.


Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Phase 2 Trial Comparing the Reactogenicity and Immunogenicity of a Single Standard Dose to Those of a High Dose of CVD 103-HgR Live Attenuated Oral Cholera Vaccine, with Shanchol Inactivated Oral Vaccine as an Open-Label Immunologic Comparator.

Sow SO, Tapia MD, Chen WH, Haidara FC, Kotloff KL, Pasetti MF, Blackwelder WC, Traoré A, Tamboura B, Doumbia M, Diallo F, Coulibaly F, Onwuchekwa U, Kodio M, Tennant SM, Reymann M, Lam DF, Gurwith M, Lock M, Yonker T, Smith J, Simon JK, Levine MM.

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017 Dec 5;24(12). pii: e00265-17. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00265-17. Print 2017 Dec.


Typhoid vaccine development with a human challenge model.

Feasey NA, Levine MM.

Lancet. 2017 Dec 2;390(10111):2419-2421. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32407-8. Epub 2017 Sep 28. No abstract available.


Patterns of bacteraemia aetiology.

Cross A, Levine MM.

Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Oct;17(10):1005-1006. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30491-7. Epub 2017 Aug 14. No abstract available.


Identification of immune correlates of protection in Shigella infection by application of machine learning.

Arevalillo JM, Sztein MB, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Simon JK.

J Biomed Inform. 2017 Oct;74:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2017.08.005. Epub 2017 Aug 9.


Animal-related factors associated with moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children younger than five years in western Kenya: A matched case-control study.

Conan A, O'Reilly CE, Ogola E, Ochieng JB, Blackstock AJ, Omore R, Ochieng L, Moke F, Parsons MB, Xiao L, Roellig D, Farag TH, Nataro JP, Kotloff KL, Levine MM, Mintz ED, Breiman RF, Cleaveland S, Knobel DL.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Aug 4;11(8):e0005795. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005795. eCollection 2017 Aug.


Global burden of diarrheal diseases among children in developing countries: Incidence, etiology, and insights from new molecular diagnostic techniques.

Kotloff KL, Platts-Mills JA, Nasrin D, Roose A, Blackwelder WC, Levine MM.

Vaccine. 2017 Dec 14;35(49 Pt A):6783-6789. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.07.036. Epub 2017 Jul 29. Review.

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