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Promises and Pitfalls of In Vivo Evolution to Improve Phage Therapy.

Bull JJ, Levin BR, Molineux IJ.

Viruses. 2019 Nov 21;11(12). pii: E1083. doi: 10.3390/v11121083.


Publisher Correction: Definitions and guidelines for research on antibiotic persistence.

Balaban NQ, Helaine S, Lewis K, Ackermann M, Aldridge B, Andersson DI, Brynildsen MP, Bumann D, Camilli A, Collins JJ, Dehio C, Fortune S, Ghigo JM, Hardt WD, Harms A, Heinemann M, Hung DT, Jenal U, Levin BR, Michiels J, Storz G, Tan MW, Tenson T, Van Melderen L, Zinkernagel A.

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019 Jul;17(7):460. doi: 10.1038/s41579-019-0207-4.


Antibiotic Killing of Diversely Generated Populations of Nonreplicating Bacteria.

McCall IC, Shah N, Govindan A, Baquero F, Levin BR.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Jun 24;63(7). pii: e02360-18. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02360-18. Print 2019 Jul.


Definitions and guidelines for research on antibiotic persistence.

Balaban NQ, Helaine S, Lewis K, Ackermann M, Aldridge B, Andersson DI, Brynildsen MP, Bumann D, Camilli A, Collins JJ, Dehio C, Fortune S, Ghigo JM, Hardt WD, Harms A, Heinemann M, Hung DT, Jenal U, Levin BR, Michiels J, Storz G, Tan MW, Tenson T, Van Melderen L, Zinkernagel A.

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019 Jul;17(7):441-448. doi: 10.1038/s41579-019-0196-3. Review. Erratum in: Nat Rev Microbiol. 2019 Apr 29;:.


Why put up with immunity when there is resistance: an excursion into the population and evolutionary dynamics of restriction-modification and CRISPR-Cas.

Gurney J, Pleška M, Levin BR.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2019 May 13;374(1772):20180096. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2018.0096.


The high prevalence of antibiotic heteroresistance in pathogenic bacteria is mainly caused by gene amplification.

Nicoloff H, Hjort K, Levin BR, Andersson DI.

Nat Microbiol. 2019 Mar;4(3):504-514. doi: 10.1038/s41564-018-0342-0. Epub 2019 Feb 11.


Leaky resistance and the conditions for the existence of lytic bacteriophage.

Chaudhry WN, Pleška M, Shah NN, Weiss H, McCall IC, Meyer JR, Gupta A, Guet CC, Levin BR.

PLoS Biol. 2018 Aug 16;16(8):e2005971. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2005971. eCollection 2018 Aug.


Development of macrolide resistance in Bordetella bronchiseptica is associated with the loss of virulence.

Dewan KK, Skarlupka AL, Rivera I, Cuff LE, Gestal MC, Taylor-Mulneix DL, Wagner S, Ryman VE, Rodriguez C, Hamidou Soumana I, Levin BR, Harvill ET.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Oct 1;73(10):2797-2805. doi: 10.1093/jac/dky264.


Phage-host population dynamics promotes prophage acquisition in bacteria with innate immunity.

Pleška M, Lang M, Refardt D, Levin BR, Guet CC.

Nat Ecol Evol. 2018 Feb;2(2):359-366. doi: 10.1038/s41559-017-0424-z. Epub 2018 Jan 8.


Cardiomyopathy in muscular dystrophy.

Indorkar R, Al-Yafi M, Romano S, Levin BR, Farzaneh-Far A.

QJM. 2018 Apr 1;111(4):267-268. doi: 10.1093/qjmed/hcx220. No abstract available.


Phagocytes, Antibiotics, and Self-Limiting Bacterial Infections.

Levin BR, Baquero F, Ankomah PP, McCall IC.

Trends Microbiol. 2017 Nov;25(11):878-892. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.005. Epub 2017 Aug 24. Review.


Evolution, human-microbe interactions, and life history plasticity.

Rook G, Bäckhed F, Levin BR, McFall-Ngai MJ, McLean AR.

Lancet. 2017 Jul 29;390(10093):521-530. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30566-4. Epub 2017 Jul 27. Review.


Growth of bacteria in 3-d colonies.

Shao X, Mugler A, Kim J, Jeong HJ, Levin BR, Nemenman I.

PLoS Comput Biol. 2017 Jul 27;13(7):e1005679. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005679. eCollection 2017 Jul.


Competitive Dominance within Biofilm Consortia Regulates the Relative Distribution of Pneumococcal Nasopharyngeal Density.

Wu X, Jacobs NT, Bozio C, Palm P, Lattar SM, Hanke CR, Watson DM, Sakai F, Levin BR, Klugman KP, Vidal JE.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017 Aug 1;83(16). pii: e00953-17. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00953-17. Print 2017 Aug 15.


A Numbers Game: Ribosome Densities, Bacterial Growth, and Antibiotic-Mediated Stasis and Death.

Levin BR, McCall IC, Perrot V, Weiss H, Ovesepian A, Baquero F.

mBio. 2017 Feb 7;8(1). pii: e02253-16. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02253-16.


Synergy and Order Effects of Antibiotics and Phages in Killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms.

Chaudhry WN, Concepción-Acevedo J, Park T, Andleeb S, Bull JJ, Levin BR.

PLoS One. 2017 Jan 11;12(1):e0168615. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0168615. eCollection 2017.


Malthusian Parameters as Estimators of the Fitness of Microbes: A Cautionary Tale about the Low Side of High Throughput.

Concepción-Acevedo J, Weiss HN, Chaudhry WN, Levin BR.

PLoS One. 2015 Jun 26;10(6):e0126915. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126915. eCollection 2015.


Engineering Cellular Resistance to HIV-1 Infection In Vivo Using a Dual Therapeutic Lentiviral Vector.

Burke BP, Levin BR, Zhang J, Sahakyan A, Boyer J, Carroll MV, Colón JC, Keech N, Rezek V, Bristol G, Eggers E, Cortado R, Boyd MP, Impey H, Shimizu S, Lowe EL, Ringpis GE, Kim SG, Vatakis DN, Breton LR, Bartlett JS, Chen IS, Kitchen SG, An DS, Symonds GP.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2015 Apr 14;4:e236. doi: 10.1038/mtna.2015.10.


Persistence: a copacetic and parsimonious hypothesis for the existence of non-inherited resistance to antibiotics.

Levin BR, Concepción-Acevedo J, Udekwu KI.

Curr Opin Microbiol. 2014 Oct;21:18-21. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2014.06.016. Epub 2014 Aug 2. Review.


A model-guided analysis and perspective on the evolution and epidemiology of antibiotic resistance and its future.

Levin BR, Baquero F, Johnsen PJ.

Curr Opin Microbiol. 2014 Jun;19:83-89. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2014.06.004. Epub 2014 Jul 11.


CD4 ligation on human blood monocytes triggers macrophage differentiation and enhances HIV infection.

Zhen A, Krutzik SR, Levin BR, Kasparian S, Zack JA, Kitchen SG.

J Virol. 2014 Sep 1;88(17):9934-46. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00616-14. Epub 2014 Jun 18.


Exploring the collaboration between antibiotics and the immune response in the treatment of acute, self-limiting infections.

Ankomah P, Levin BR.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jun 10;111(23):8331-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1400352111. Epub 2014 May 19.


Phenotypic resistance and the dynamics of bacterial escape from phage control.

Bull JJ, Vegge CS, Schmerer M, Chaudhry WN, Levin BR.

PLoS One. 2014 Apr 17;9(4):e94690. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094690. eCollection 2014.


Dealing with the evolutionary downside of CRISPR immunity: bacteria and beneficial plasmids.

Jiang W, Maniv I, Arain F, Wang Y, Levin BR, Marraffini LA.

PLoS Genet. 2013;9(9):e1003844. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003844. Epub 2013 Sep 26.


Normal mutation rate variants arise in a Mutator (Mut S) Escherichia coli population.

Turrientes MC, Baquero F, Levin BR, Martínez JL, Ripoll A, González-Alba JM, Tobes R, Manrique M, Baquero MR, Rodríguez-Domínguez MJ, Cantón R, Galán JC.

PLoS One. 2013 Sep 12;8(9):e72963. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0072963. eCollection 2013. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2013;8(9). doi:10.1371/annotation/7c826b51-98c5-41d8-a57e-a2836d17857f.


The pharmaco -, population and evolutionary dynamics of multi-drug therapy: experiments with S. aureus and E. coli and computer simulations.

Ankomah P, Johnson PJ, Levin BR.

PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(4):e1003300. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003300. Epub 2013 Apr 4.


The population and evolutionary dynamics of phage and bacteria with CRISPR-mediated immunity.

Levin BR, Moineau S, Bushman M, Barrangou R.

PLoS Genet. 2013;9(3):e1003312. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003312. Epub 2013 Mar 14.


Pharmacodynamics, population dynamics, and the evolution of persistence in Staphylococcus aureus.

Johnson PJ, Levin BR.

PLoS Genet. 2013;9(1):e1003123. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1003123. Epub 2013 Jan 3.


Staphylococcus aureus in continuous culture: a tool for the rational design of antibiotic treatment protocols.

Udekwu KI, Levin BR.

PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e38866. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038866. Epub 2012 Jul 20.


In vivo suppression of HIV by antigen specific T cells derived from engineered hematopoietic stem cells.

Kitchen SG, Levin BR, Bristol G, Rezek V, Kim S, Aguilera-Sandoval C, Balamurugan A, Yang OO, Zack JA.

PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(4):e1002649. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002649. Epub 2012 Apr 12.


The relative contributions of physical structure and cell density to the antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria in biofilms.

Kirby AE, Garner K, Levin BR.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Jun;56(6):2967-75. doi: 10.1128/AAC.06480-11. Epub 2012 Mar 26.


The anticipated severity of a "1918-like" influenza pandemic in contemporary populations: the contribution of antibacterial interventions.

Chien YW, Levin BR, Klugman KP.

PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e29219. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029219. Epub 2012 Jan 23.


Two-drug antimicrobial chemotherapy: a mathematical model and experiments with Mycobacterium marinum.

Ankomah P, Levin BR.

PLoS Pathog. 2012 Jan;8(1):e1002487. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002487. Epub 2012 Jan 12.


The population and evolutionary dynamics of Vibrio cholerae and its bacteriophage: conditions for maintaining phage-limited communities.

Wei Y, Kirby A, Levin BR.

Am Nat. 2011 Dec;178(6):715-25. doi: 10.1086/662677. Epub 2011 Nov 1.


The population dynamics of bacteria in physically structured habitats and the adaptive virtue of random motility.

Wei Y, Wang X, Liu J, Nememan I, Singh AH, Weiss H, Levin BR.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Mar 8;108(10):4047-52. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1013499108. Epub 2011 Feb 15.


Antibiotic control of antibiotic resistance in hospitals: a simulation study.

Haber M, Levin BR, Kramarz P.

BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Aug 25;10:254. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-254.


An experimental study of the population and evolutionary dynamics of Vibrio cholerae O1 and the bacteriophage JSF4.

Wei Y, Ocampo P, Levin BR.

Proc Biol Sci. 2010 Nov 7;277(1698):3247-54. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2010.0651. Epub 2010 Jun 10.


Population dynamics of antibiotic treatment: a mathematical model and hypotheses for time-kill and continuous-culture experiments.

Levin BR, Udekwu KI.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Aug;54(8):3414-26. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00381-10. Epub 2010 Jun 1.


Adjusting to alien genes.

Johnsen PJ, Levin BR.

Mol Microbiol. 2010 Mar;75(5):1061-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07075.x. Epub 2010 Feb 8.


The population and evolutionary dynamics of homologous gene recombination in bacterial populations.

Levin BR, Cornejo OE.

PLoS Genet. 2009 Aug;5(8):e1000601. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000601. Epub 2009 Aug 14.


Functional relationship between bacterial cell density and the efficacy of antibiotics.

Udekwu KI, Parrish N, Ankomah P, Baquero F, Levin BR.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Apr;63(4):745-57. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkn554. Epub 2009 Feb 13.


Episodic selection and the maintenance of competence and natural transformation in Bacillus subtilis.

Johnsen PJ, Dubnau D, Levin BR.

Genetics. 2009 Apr;181(4):1521-33. doi: 10.1534/genetics.108.099523. Epub 2009 Feb 2.


Oscillations in continuous culture populations of Streptococcus pneumoniae: population dynamics and the evolution of clonal suicide.

Cornejo OE, Rozen DE, May RM, Levin BR.

Proc Biol Sci. 2009 Mar 22;276(1659):999-1008. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2008.1415.


Exploring the role of the immune response in preventing antibiotic resistance.

Handel A, Margolis E, Levin BR.

J Theor Biol. 2009 Feb 21;256(4):655-62. doi: 10.1016/j.jtbi.2008.10.025. Epub 2008 Nov 8.


The evolution of contact-dependent inhibition in non-growing populations of Escherichia coli.

Lemonnier M, Levin BR, Romeo T, Garner K, Baquero MR, Mercante J, Lemichez E, Baquero F, Blázquez J.

Proc Biol Sci. 2008 Jan 7;275(1630):3-10.


Antiviral resistance and the control of pandemic influenza.

Lipsitch M, Cohen T, Murray M, Levin BR.

PLoS Med. 2007 Jan;4(1):e15.

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