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Exploring the Nature of Cationic Blocker Recognition by the Anthrax Toxin Channel.

Momben Abolfath S, Kolberg M, Karginov VA, Leppla SH, Nestorovich EM.

Biophys J. 2019 Sep 12. pii: S0006-3495(19)30774-X. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2019.08.041. [Epub ahead of print]


Bacillus anthracis virulence regulator AtxA binds specifically to pagA promoter region.

McCall RM, Sievers ME, Fattah R, Ghirlando R, Pomerantsev AP, Leppla SH.

J Bacteriol. 2019 Sep 30. pii: JB.00569-19. doi: 10.1128/JB.00569-19. [Epub ahead of print]


Pre-labelling versus direct labelling of anthrax proteins for imaging of matrix metalloproteinases activity using DOTA-GA.

Xavier ME, Liu S, Leppla SH, Cornelissen B.

Nucl Med Biol. 2019 May - Jun;72-73:49-54. doi: 10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2019.07.007. Epub 2019 Jul 18.


Tumor Imaging Using Radiolabeled Matrix Metalloproteinase-Activated Anthrax Proteins.

Elvina Xavier MA, Liu S, Bugge TH, Torres JB, Mosley M, Hopkins SL, Allen PD, Berridge G, Vendrell I, Fischer R, Kersemans V, Smart S, Leppla SH, Cornelissen B.

J Nucl Med. 2019 Oct;60(10):1474-1482. doi: 10.2967/jnumed.119.226423. Epub 2019 Apr 6.


Bismaleimide cross-linked anthrax toxin forms functional octamers with high specificity in tumor targeting.

Fischer ES, Campbell WA 4th, Liu S, Ghirlando R, Fattah RJ, Bugge TH, Leppla SH.

Protein Sci. 2019 Jun;28(6):1059-1070. doi: 10.1002/pro.3613. Epub 2019 Apr 17.


Zeptomole per milliliter detection and quantification of edema factor in plasma by LC-MS/MS yields insights into toxemia and the progression of inhalation anthrax.

Lins RC, Boyer AE, Kuklenyik Z, Woolfitt AR, Goldstein J, Hoffmaster AR, Gallegos-Candela M, Leysath CE, Chen Z, Brumlow JO, Quinn CP, Bagarozzi DA Jr, Leppla SH, Barr JR.

Anal Bioanal Chem. 2019 May;411(12):2493-2509. doi: 10.1007/s00216-019-01730-4. Epub 2019 Mar 26.


Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin, but not edema toxin, increases pulmonary artery pressure and permeability in isolated perfused rat lungs.

Cui X, Xu W, Neupane P, Weiser-Schlesinger A, Weng R, Pockros B, Li Y, Moayeri M, Leppla SH, Fitz Y, Eichacker PQ.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2019 May 1;316(5):H1076-H1090. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00685.2018. Epub 2019 Feb 15.


A multicomponent toxin from Bacillus cereus incites inflammation and shapes host outcome via the NLRP3 inflammasome.

Mathur A, Feng S, Hayward JA, Ngo C, Fox D, Atmosukarto II, Price JD, Schauer K, Märtlbauer E, Robertson AAB, Burgio G, Fox EM, Leppla SH, Kaakoush NO, Man SM.

Nat Microbiol. 2019 Feb;4(2):362-374. doi: 10.1038/s41564-018-0318-0. Epub 2018 Dec 10.


Effect of late endosomal DOBMP lipid and traditional model lipids of electrophysiology on the anthrax toxin channel activity.

Kalu N, Atsmon-Raz Y, Momben Abolfath S, Lucas L, Kenney C, Leppla SH, Tieleman DP, Nestorovich EM.

Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr. 2018 Nov;1860(11):2192-2203. doi: 10.1016/j.bbamem.2018.08.011. Epub 2018 Aug 23.


Effect of over expressing protective antigen on global gene transcription in Bacillus anthracis BH500.

Sharma AK, Leppla SH, Pomerantsev AP, Shiloach J.

Sci Rep. 2018 Oct 31;8(1):16108. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-34196-y.


A Bacteriophage T4 Nanoparticle-Based Dual Vaccine against Anthrax and Plague.

Tao P, Mahalingam M, Zhu J, Moayeri M, Sha J, Lawrence WS, Leppla SH, Chopra AK, Rao VB.

MBio. 2018 Oct 16;9(5). pii: e01926-18. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01926-18.


Lethal Factor Domain-Mediated Delivery of Nurr1 Transcription Factor Enhances Tyrosine Hydroxylase Activity and Protects from Neurotoxin-Induced Degeneration of Dopaminergic Cells.

Paliga D, Raudzus F, Leppla SH, Heumann R, Neumann S.

Mol Neurobiol. 2019 May;56(5):3393-3403. doi: 10.1007/s12035-018-1311-6. Epub 2018 Aug 18.


Small molecule inhibitors of anthrax edema factor.

Jiao GS, Kim S, Moayeri M, Thai A, Cregar-Hernandez L, McKasson L, O'Malley S, Leppla SH, Johnson AT.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2018 Jan 15;28(2):134-139. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.11.040. Epub 2017 Nov 24.


Anti-tumor activity of anthrax toxin variants that form a functional translocation pore by intermolecular complementation.

Liu S, Ma Q, Fattah R, Bugge TH, Leppla SH.

Oncotarget. 2017 May 9;8(39):65123-65131. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.17729. eCollection 2017 Sep 12.


Anthrax edema toxin disrupts distinct steps in Rab11-dependent junctional transport.

Guichard A, Jain P, Moayeri M, Schwartz R, Chin S, Zhu L, Cruz-Moreno B, Liu JZ, Aguilar B, Hollands A, Leppla SH, Nizet V, Bier E.

PLoS Pathog. 2017 Sep 25;13(9):e1006603. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006603. eCollection 2017 Sep.


Genome engineering in Bacillus anthracis using tyrosine site-specific recombinases.

Pomerantsev AP, McCall RM, Chahoud M, Hepler NK, Fattah R, Leppla SH.

PLoS One. 2017 Aug 22;12(8):e0183346. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183346. eCollection 2017.


A Bivalent Anthrax-Plague Vaccine That Can Protect against Two Tier-1 Bioterror Pathogens, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis.

Tao P, Mahalingam M, Zhu J, Moayeri M, Kirtley ML, Fitts EC, Andersson JA, Lawrence WS, Leppla SH, Chopra AK, Rao VB.

Front Immunol. 2017 Jun 26;8:687. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.00687. eCollection 2017.


In vivo characterization of an Hfq protein encoded by the Bacillus anthracis virulence plasmid pXO1.

Keefer AB, Asare EK, Pomerantsev AP, Moayeri M, Martens C, Porcella SF, Gottesman S, Leppla SH, Vrentas CE.

BMC Microbiol. 2017 Mar 14;17(1):63. doi: 10.1186/s12866-017-0973-y.


Anthrax Toxin Protective Antigen Variants That Selectively Utilize either the CMG2 or TEM8 Receptors for Cellular Uptake and Tumor Targeting.

Chen KH, Liu S, Leysath CE, Miller-Randolph S, Zhang Y, Fattah R, Bugge TH, Leppla SH.

J Biol Chem. 2016 Oct 14;291(42):22021-22029. Epub 2016 Aug 23.


A Diverse Set of Single-domain Antibodies (VHHs) against the Anthrax Toxin Lethal and Edema Factors Provides a Basis for Construction of a Bispecific Agent That Protects against Anthrax Infection.

Vrentas CE, Moayeri M, Keefer AB, Greaney AJ, Tremblay J, O'Mard D, Leppla SH, Shoemaker CB.

J Biol Chem. 2016 Oct 7;291(41):21596-21606. Epub 2016 Aug 18.


Tumor Targeting and Drug Delivery by Anthrax Toxin.

Bachran C, Leppla SH.

Toxins (Basel). 2016 Jul 1;8(7). pii: E197. doi: 10.3390/toxins8070197. Review.


Solid tumor therapy by selectively targeting stromal endothelial cells.

Liu S, Liu J, Ma Q, Cao L, Fattah RJ, Yu Z, Bugge TH, Finkel T, Leppla SH.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Jul 12;113(28):E4079-87. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1600982113. Epub 2016 Jun 29.


The IntXO-PSL Recombination System Is a Key Component of the Second Maintenance System for Bacillus anthracis Plasmid pXO1.

Pomerantsev AP, Rappole C, Chang Z, Chahoud M, Leppla SH.

J Bacteriol. 2016 Jun 27;198(14):1939-1951. doi: 10.1128/JB.01004-15. Print 2016 Jul 15.


Targeting the MAP kinase pathway in astrocytoma cells using a recombinant anthrax lethal toxin as a way to inhibit cell motility and invasion.

Al-Dimassi S, Salloum G, Saykali B, Khoury O, Liu S, Leppla SH, Abi-Habib R, El-Sibai M.

Int J Oncol. 2016 May;48(5):1913-20. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2016.3431. Epub 2016 Mar 9.


Structural Basis for Latency and Function of Immune Inhibitor A Metallopeptidase, a Modulator of the Bacillus anthracis Secretome.

Arolas JL, Goulas T, Pomerantsev AP, Leppla SH, Gomis-Rüth FX.

Structure. 2016 Jan 5;24(1):25-36. doi: 10.1016/j.str.2015.10.015.


Bacterial Exotoxins and the Inflammasome.

Greaney AJ, Leppla SH, Moayeri M.

Front Immunol. 2015 Nov 10;6:570. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00570. eCollection 2015. Review.


An anthrax toxin variant with an improved activity in tumor targeting.

Wein AN, Peters DE, Valivullah Z, Hoover BJ, Tatineni A, Ma Q, Fattah R, Bugge TH, Leppla SH, Liu S.

Sci Rep. 2015 Nov 20;5:16267. doi: 10.1038/srep16267.


Phospho-MEK1/2 and uPAR Expression Determine Sensitivity of AML Blasts to a Urokinase-Activated Anthrax Lethal Toxin (PrAgU2/LF).

Bekdash A, Darwish M, Timsah Z, Kassab E, Ghanem H, Najjar V, Ghosn M, Nasser S, El-Hajj H, Bazerbachi A, Liu S, Leppla SH, Frankel AE, Abi-Habib RJ.

Transl Oncol. 2015 Oct;8(5):347-57. doi: 10.1016/j.tranon.2015.07.001.


Targeting the membrane-anchored serine protease testisin with a novel engineered anthrax toxin prodrug to kill tumor cells and reduce tumor burden.

Martin EW, Buzza MS, Driesbaugh KH, Liu S, Fortenberry YM, Leppla SH, Antalis TM.

Oncotarget. 2015 Oct 20;6(32):33534-53. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.5214.


Hfqs in Bacillus anthracis: Role of protein sequence variation in the structure and function of proteins in the Hfq family.

Vrentas C, Ghirlando R, Keefer A, Hu Z, Tomczak A, Gittis AG, Murthi A, Garboczi DN, Gottesman S, Leppla SH.

Protein Sci. 2015 Nov;24(11):1808-19. doi: 10.1002/pro.2773. Epub 2015 Aug 30.


Sulforaphane inhibits multiple inflammasomes through an Nrf2-independent mechanism.

Greaney AJ, Maier NK, Leppla SH, Moayeri M.

J Leukoc Biol. 2016 Jan;99(1):189-99. doi: 10.1189/jlb.3A0415-155RR. Epub 2015 Aug 12.


Anthrax Pathogenesis.

Moayeri M, Leppla SH, Vrentas C, Pomerantsev AP, Liu S.

Annu Rev Microbiol. 2015;69:185-208. doi: 10.1146/annurev-micro-091014-104523. Epub 2015 Jul 16. Review.


Raxibacumab augments hemodynamic support and improves outcomes during shock with B. anthracis edema toxin alone or together with lethal toxin in canines.

Remy KE, Cui X, Li Y, Sun J, Solomon SB, Fitz Y, Barochia AV, Al-Hamad M, Moayeri M, Leppla SH, Eichacker PQ.

Intensive Care Med Exp. 2015 Dec;3(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s40635-015-0043-4. Epub 2015 Feb 28.


Bacillus anthracis Capsular Conjugates Elicit Chimpanzee Polyclonal Antibodies That Protect Mice from Pulmonary Anthrax.

Chen Z, Schneerson R, Lovchik JA, Dai Z, Kubler-Kielb J, Agulto L, Leppla SH, Purcell RH.

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015 Aug;22(8):902-8. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00137-15. Epub 2015 Jun 3.


The cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15d-PGJ2 inhibits the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes.

Maier NK, Leppla SH, Moayeri M.

J Immunol. 2015 Mar 15;194(6):2776-85. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1401611. Epub 2015 Feb 13.


A heterodimer of a VHH (variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only) antibody that inhibits anthrax toxin cell binding linked to a VHH antibody that blocks oligomer formation is highly protective in an anthrax spore challenge model.

Moayeri M, Leysath CE, Tremblay JM, Vrentas C, Crown D, Leppla SH, Shoemaker CB.

J Biol Chem. 2015 Mar 6;290(10):6584-95. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.627943. Epub 2015 Jan 6.


Antibodies specific for nucleic acids and applications in genomic detection and clinical diagnostics.

Hu Z, Leppla SH, Li B, Elkins CA.

Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2014 Sep;14(7):895-916. doi: 10.1586/14737159.2014.931810. Epub 2014 Jul 11. Review.


Comparative toxicity and efficacy of engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants with broad anti-tumor activities.

Peters DE, Hoover B, Cloud LG, Liu S, Molinolo AA, Leppla SH, Bugge TH.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014 Sep 1;279(2):220-9. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2014.06.010. Epub 2014 Jun 24.


clpC operon regulates cell architecture and sporulation in Bacillus anthracis.

Singh LK, Dhasmana N, Sajid A, Kumar P, Bhaduri A, Bharadwaj M, Gandotra S, Kalia VC, Das TK, Goel AK, Pomerantsev AP, Misra R, Gerth U, Leppla SH, Singh Y.

Environ Microbiol. 2015 Mar;17(3):855-65. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12548. Epub 2014 Jul 17.


Identification of three noncontiguous regions on Bacillus anthracis plasmid pXO1 that are important for its maintenance.

Pomerantsev AP, Chang Z, Rappole C, Leppla SH.

J Bacteriol. 2014 Aug 15;196(16):2921-33. doi: 10.1128/JB.01747-14. Epub 2014 Jun 9.


Reductive methylation and mutation of an anthrax toxin fusion protein modulates its stability and cytotoxicity.

Bachran C, Gupta PK, Bachran S, Leysath CE, Hoover B, Fattah RJ, Leppla SH.

Sci Rep. 2014 Apr 23;4:4754. doi: 10.1038/srep04754.


Anthrax lethal and edema toxins in anthrax pathogenesis.

Liu S, Moayeri M, Leppla SH.

Trends Microbiol. 2014 Jun;22(6):317-25. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2014.02.012. Epub 2014 Mar 27. Review.


Transcriptome analysis identifies Bacillus anthracis genes that respond to CO2 through an AtxA-dependent mechanism.

McKenzie AT, Pomerantsev AP, Sastalla I, Martens C, Ricklefs SM, Virtaneva K, Anzick S, Porcella SF, Leppla SH.

BMC Genomics. 2014 Mar 25;15:229. doi: 10.1186/1471-2164-15-229.


Inflammasome sensor NLRP1 controls rat macrophage susceptibility to Toxoplasma gondii.

Cirelli KM, Gorfu G, Hassan MA, Printz M, Crown D, Leppla SH, Grigg ME, Saeij JP, Moayeri M.

PLoS Pathog. 2014 Mar 13;10(3):e1003927. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003927. eCollection 2014 Mar.


Dual role for inflammasome sensors NLRP1 and NLRP3 in murine resistance to Toxoplasma gondii.

Gorfu G, Cirelli KM, Melo MB, Mayer-Barber K, Crown D, Koller BH, Masters S, Sher A, Leppla SH, Moayeri M, Saeij JP, Grigg ME.

MBio. 2014 Feb 18;5(1). pii: e01117-13. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01117-13.


Cytolethal distending toxin B as a cell-killing component of tumor-targeted anthrax toxin fusion proteins.

Bachran C, Hasikova R, Leysath CE, Sastalla I, Zhang Y, Fattah RJ, Liu S, Leppla SH.

Cell Death Dis. 2014 Jan 16;5:e1003. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2013.540.


Arsenic trioxide and other arsenical compounds inhibit the NLRP1, NLRP3, and NAIP5/NLRC4 inflammasomes.

Maier NK, Crown D, Liu J, Leppla SH, Moayeri M.

J Immunol. 2014 Jan 15;192(2):763-70. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1301434. Epub 2013 Dec 13.


Hijacking multivesicular bodies enables long-term and exosome-mediated long-distance action of anthrax toxin.

Abrami L, Brandi L, Moayeri M, Brown MJ, Krantz BA, Leppla SH, van der Goot FG.

Cell Rep. 2013 Nov 27;5(4):986-96. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2013.10.019. Epub 2013 Nov 14.


The Bacillus cereus Hbl and Nhe tripartite enterotoxin components assemble sequentially on the surface of target cells and are not interchangeable.

Sastalla I, Fattah R, Coppage N, Nandy P, Crown D, Pomerantsev AP, Leppla SH.

PLoS One. 2013 Oct 18;8(10):e76955. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076955. eCollection 2013.


Anthrax edema factor toxicity is strongly mediated by the N-end rule.

Leysath CE, Phillips DD, Crown D, Fattah RJ, Moayeri M, Leppla SH.

PLoS One. 2013 Aug 28;8(8):e74474. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0074474. eCollection 2013.

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