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Applying the 3Rs to neuroscience research involving nonhuman primates.

Lemon RN.

Drug Discov Today. 2018 Sep;23(9):1574-1577. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2018.05.002. Epub 2018 May 4. Review.


Functional Strength Training and Movement Performance Therapy for Upper Limb Recovery Early Poststroke-Efficacy, Neural Correlates, Predictive Markers, and Cost-Effectiveness: FAST-INdiCATE Trial.

Hunter SM, Johansen-Berg H, Ward N, Kennedy NC, Chandler E, Weir CJ, Rothwell J, Wing AM, Grey MJ, Barton G, Leavey NM, Havis C, Lemon RN, Burridge J, Dymond A, Pomeroy VM.

Front Neurol. 2018 Jan 25;8:733. doi: 10.3389/fneur.2017.00733. eCollection 2017.


Expression of Kv3.1b potassium channel is widespread in macaque motor cortex pyramidal cells: A histological comparison between rat and macaque.

Soares D, Goldrick I, Lemon RN, Kraskov A, Greensmith L, Kalmar B.

J Comp Neurol. 2017 Jun 15;525(9):2164-2174. doi: 10.1002/cne.24192. Epub 2017 Mar 14.


Functional Characterization of the Left Ventrolateral Premotor Cortex in Humans: A Direct Electrophysiological Approach.

Fornia L, Ferpozzi V, Montagna M, Rossi M, Riva M, Pessina F, Martinelli Boneschi F, Borroni P, Lemon RN, Bello L, Cerri G.

Cereb Cortex. 2018 Jan 1;28(1):167-183. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhw365.


Grasp-specific motor resonance is influenced by the visibility of the observed actor.

Bunday KL, Lemon RN, Kilner JM, Davare M, Orban GA.

Cortex. 2016 Nov;84:43-54. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2016.09.002. Epub 2016 Sep 11.


Neural changes in the primate brain correlated with the evolution of complex motor skills.

Yamazaki Y, Hikishima K, Saiki M, Inada M, Sasaki E, Lemon RN, Price CJ, Okano H, Iriki A.

Sci Rep. 2016 Aug 8;6:31084. doi: 10.1038/srep31084.


Cortical projections to the red nucleus and the brain stem in the rhesus monkey.

Lemon RN.

Brain Res. 2016 Aug 15;1645:28-30. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2016.01.006. Epub 2016 Jan 11. Review.


Modulation of the Intracortical LFP during Action Execution and Observation.

Waldert S, Vigneswaran G, Philipp R, Lemon RN, Kraskov A.

J Neurosci. 2015 Jun 3;35(22):8451-61. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5137-14.2015.


Axon diameters and conduction velocities in the macaque pyramidal tract.

Firmin L, Field P, Maier MA, Kraskov A, Kirkwood PA, Nakajima K, Lemon RN, Glickstein M.

J Neurophysiol. 2014 Sep 15;112(6):1229-40. doi: 10.1152/jn.00720.2013. Epub 2014 May 28.


Corticospinal mirror neurons.

Kraskov A, Philipp R, Waldert S, Vigneswaran G, Quallo MM, Lemon RN.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2014 Apr 28;369(1644):20130174. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0174. Print 2014.


Do monkey F5 mirror neurons show changes in firing rate during repeated observation of natural actions?

Kilner JM, Kraskov A, Lemon RN.

J Neurophysiol. 2014 Mar;111(6):1214-26. doi: 10.1152/jn.01102.2012. Epub 2013 Dec 26.


What we know currently about mirror neurons.

Kilner JM, Lemon RN.

Curr Biol. 2013 Dec 2;23(23):R1057-62. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.10.051. Review.


FAST INdiCATE Trial protocol. Clinical efficacy of functional strength training for upper limb motor recovery early after stroke: neural correlates and prognostic indicators.

Pomeroy VM, Ward NS, Johansen-Berg H, van Vliet P, Burridge J, Hunter SM, Lemon RN, Rothwell J, Weir CJ, Wing A, Walker AA, Kennedy N, Barton G, Greenwood RJ, McConnachie A; FAST INdICATE Investigators.

Int J Stroke. 2014 Feb;9(2):240-5. doi: 10.1111/ijs.12179. Epub 2013 Sep 12.


Influence of spiking activity on cortical local field potentials.

Waldert S, Lemon RN, Kraskov A.

J Physiol. 2013 Nov 1;591(21):5291-303. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2013.258228. Epub 2013 Aug 27.


Responses of single corticospinal neurons to intracortical stimulation of primary motor and premotor cortex in the anesthetized macaque monkey.

Maier MA, Kirkwood PA, Brochier T, Lemon RN.

J Neurophysiol. 2013 Jun;109(12):2982-98. doi: 10.1152/jn.01080.2012. Epub 2013 Mar 27.


M1 corticospinal mirror neurons and their role in movement suppression during action observation.

Vigneswaran G, Philipp R, Lemon RN, Kraskov A.

Curr Biol. 2013 Feb 4;23(3):236-43. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.12.006. Epub 2013 Jan 3.


The activity of primary motor cortex corticospinal neurons during tool use by macaque monkeys.

Quallo MM, Kraskov A, Lemon RN.

J Neurosci. 2012 Nov 28;32(48):17351-64. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1009-12.2012.


Lawrence and Kuypers (1968a, b) revisited: copies of the original filmed material from their classic papers in Brain.

Lemon RN, Landau W, Tutssel D, Lawrence DG.

Brain. 2012 Jul;135(Pt 7):2290-5. doi: 10.1093/brain/aws037. Epub 2012 Feb 27.


Large identified pyramidal cells in macaque motor and premotor cortex exhibit "thin spikes": implications for cell type classification.

Vigneswaran G, Kraskov A, Lemon RN.

J Neurosci. 2011 Oct 5;31(40):14235-42. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3142-11.2011.


Interactions between areas of the cortical grasping network.

Davare M, Kraskov A, Rothwell JC, Lemon RN.

Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2011 Aug;21(4):565-70. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2011.05.021. Epub 2011 Jun 21. Review.


Ventral premotor-motor cortex interactions in the macaque monkey during grasp: response of single neurons to intracortical microstimulation.

Kraskov A, Prabhu G, Quallo MM, Lemon RN, Brochier T.

J Neurosci. 2011 Jun 15;31(24):8812-21. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0525-11.2011.


What drives corticospinal output?

Lemon RN.

F1000 Biol Rep. 2010 Jul 14;2:51. doi: 10.3410/B2-51.


Population-averaged standard template brain atlas for the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

Hikishima K, Quallo MM, Komaki Y, Yamada M, Kawai K, Momoshima S, Okano HJ, Sasaki E, Tamaoki N, Lemon RN, Iriki A, Okano H.

Neuroimage. 2011 Feb 14;54(4):2741-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.10.061. Epub 2010 Oct 29.


Refinement of the use of food and fluid control as motivational tools for macaques used in behavioural neuroscience research: report of a Working Group of the NC3Rs.

Prescott MJ, Brown VJ, Flecknell PA, Gaffan D, Garrod K, Lemon RN, Parker AJ, Ryder K, Schultz W, Scott L, Watson J, Whitfield L.

J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Nov 30;193(2):167-88. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2010.09.003. Epub 2010 Sep 22.


Information about the weight of grasped objects from vision and internal models interacts within the primary motor cortex.

Loh MN, Kirsch L, Rothwell JC, Lemon RN, Davare M.

J Neurosci. 2010 May 19;30(20):6984-90. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.6207-09.2010.


Creating a population-averaged standard brain template for Japanese macaques (M. fuscata).

Quallo MM, Price CJ, Ueno K, Asamizuya T, Cheng K, Lemon RN, Iriki A.

Neuroimage. 2010 Oct 1;52(4):1328-33. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.05.006. Epub 2010 May 7.


Life without a cerebellum.

Lemon RN, Edgley SA.

Brain. 2010 Mar;133(Pt 3):652-4. doi: 10.1093/brain/awq030. No abstract available.


Causal connectivity between the human anterior intraparietal area and premotor cortex during grasp.

Davare M, Rothwell JC, Lemon RN.

Curr Biol. 2010 Jan 26;20(2):176-81. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.063. Epub 2010 Jan 21.


Corticospinal neurons in macaque ventral premotor cortex with mirror properties: a potential mechanism for action suppression?

Kraskov A, Dancause N, Quallo MM, Shepherd S, Lemon RN.

Neuron. 2009 Dec 24;64(6):922-30. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.12.010.


Gray and white matter changes associated with tool-use learning in macaque monkeys.

Quallo MM, Price CJ, Ueno K, Asamizuya T, Cheng K, Lemon RN, Iriki A.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Oct 27;106(43):18379-84. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0909751106. Epub 2009 Oct 9.


Ventral premotor to primary motor cortical interactions during object-driven grasp in humans.

Davare M, Montague K, Olivier E, Rothwell JC, Lemon RN.

Cortex. 2009 Oct;45(9):1050-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2009.02.011. Epub 2009 Mar 10.


Modulation of primary motor cortex outputs from ventral premotor cortex during visually guided grasp in the macaque monkey.

Prabhu G, Shimazu H, Cerri G, Brochier T, Spinks RL, Maier MA, Lemon RN.

J Physiol. 2009 Mar 1;587(Pt 5):1057-69. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2008.165571. Epub 2009 Jan 12.


Selectivity for grasp in local field potential and single neuron activity recorded simultaneously from M1 and F5 in the awake macaque monkey.

Spinks RL, Kraskov A, Brochier T, Umilta MA, Lemon RN.

J Neurosci. 2008 Oct 22;28(43):10961-71. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1956-08.2008.


State of the art: Physiology of transcranial motor cortex stimulation.

Di Lazzaro V, Ziemann U, Lemon RN.

Brain Stimul. 2008 Oct;1(4):345-62. doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2008.07.004. Epub 2008 Oct 7. Review.


An enduring map of the motor cortex.

Lemon RN.

Exp Physiol. 2008 Jul;93(7):798-802. doi: 10.1113/expphysiol.2007.039081. No abstract available.


Descending pathways in motor control.

Lemon RN.

Annu Rev Neurosci. 2008;31:195-218. doi: 10.1146/annurev.neuro.31.060407.125547. Review.


Pronounced reduction of digit motor responses evoked from macaque ventral premotor cortex after reversible inactivation of the primary motor cortex hand area.

Schmidlin E, Brochier T, Maier MA, Kirkwood PA, Lemon RN.

J Neurosci. 2008 May 28;28(22):5772-83. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0944-08.2008. Erratum in: J Neurosci. 2008 Dec 17;28(51):2 p following 13951.


Electrophysiological actions of the rubrospinal tract in the anaesthetised rat.

Al-Izki S, Kirkwood PA, Lemon RN, Enríquez Denton M.

Exp Neurol. 2008 Jul;212(1):118-31. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2008.03.020. Epub 2008 Apr 3.


Stimulus intensity and coil characteristics influence the efficacy of rTMS to suppress cortical excitability.

Lang N, Harms J, Weyh T, Lemon RN, Paulus W, Rothwell JC, Siebner HR.

Clin Neurophysiol. 2006 Oct;117(10):2292-301. Epub 2006 Aug 21.


International spinal research trust research strategy. III: A discussion document.

Adams M, Carlstedt T, Cavanagh J, Lemon RN, McKernan R, Priestley JV, Raisman G, Verhaagen J.

Spinal Cord. 2007 Jan;45(1):2-14. Epub 2006 Aug 1. Review.


Linear encoding of muscle activity in primary motor cortex and cerebellum.

Townsend BR, Paninski L, Lemon RN.

J Neurophysiol. 2006 Nov;96(5):2578-92. Epub 2006 Jun 21.


How does transcranial DC stimulation of the primary motor cortex alter regional neuronal activity in the human brain?

Lang N, Siebner HR, Ward NS, Lee L, Nitsche MA, Paulus W, Rothwell JC, Lemon RN, Frackowiak RS.

Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Jul;22(2):495-504.


A cortico-cortical mechanism mediating object-driven grasp in humans.

Cattaneo L, Voss M, Brochier T, Prabhu G, Wolpert DM, Lemon RN.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jan 18;102(3):898-903. Epub 2005 Jan 10.


Patterns of muscle activity underlying object-specific grasp by the macaque monkey.

Brochier T, Spinks RL, Umilta MA, Lemon RN.

J Neurophysiol. 2004 Sep;92(3):1770-82. Epub 2004 May 26.


Macaque ventral premotor cortex exerts powerful facilitation of motor cortex outputs to upper limb motoneurons.

Shimazu H, Maier MA, Cerri G, Kirkwood PA, Lemon RN.

J Neurosci. 2004 Feb 4;24(5):1200-11.

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