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Cytotoxicity Models of Huntington's Disease and Relevance of Hormetic Mechanisms: A Critical Assessment of Experimental Approaches and Strategies.

Calabrese EJ, Bhatia TN, Calabrese V, Dhawan G, Giordano J, Hanekamp YN, Kapoor R, Kozumbo WJ, Leak RK.

Pharmacol Res. 2019 Aug 12. pii: S1043-6618(19)30333-0. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2019.104371. [Epub ahead of print] Review.


Alpha-synuclein: prion or prion-like?

Leak RK, Frosch MP, Beach TG, Halliday GM.

Acta Neuropathol. 2019 Aug 12. doi: 10.1007/s00401-019-02057-1. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.


The interleukin-4/PPARγ signaling axis promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and remyelination after brain injury.

Zhang Q, Zhu W, Xu F, Dai X, Shi L, Cai W, Mu H, Hitchens TK, Foley LM, Liu X, Yu F, Chen J, Shi Y, Leak RK, Gao Y, Chen J, Hu X.

PLoS Biol. 2019 Jun 21;17(6):e3000330. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.3000330. eCollection 2019 Jun.


Astrocytes Do Not Forfeit Their Neuroprotective Roles After Surviving Intense Oxidative Stress.

Bhatia TN, Pant DB, Eckhoff EA, Gongaware RN, Do T, Hutchison DF, Gleixner AM, Leak RK.

Front Mol Neurosci. 2019 Apr 5;12:87. doi: 10.3389/fnmol.2019.00087. eCollection 2019.


Protease-independent action of tissue plasminogen activator in brain plasticity and neurological recovery after ischemic stroke.

Pu H, Shi Y, Zhang L, Lu Z, Ye Q, Leak RK, Xu F, Ma S, Mu H, Wei Z, Xu N, Xia Y, Hu X, Hitchens TK, Bennett MVL, Chen J.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Apr 30;116(18):9115-9124. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1821979116. Epub 2019 Apr 17.


The center of olfactory bulb-seeded α-synucleinopathy is the limbic system and the ensuing pathology is higher in male than in female mice.

Mason DM, Wang Y, Bhatia TN, Miner KM, Trbojevic SA, Stolz JF, Luk KC, Leak RK.

Brain Pathol. 2019 Mar 10. doi: 10.1111/bpa.12718. [Epub ahead of print]


TGFα preserves oligodendrocyte lineage cells and improves white matter integrity after cerebral ischemia.

Dai X, Chen J, Xu F, Zhao J, Cai W, Sun Z, Hitchens TK, Foley LM, Leak RK, Chen J, Hu X.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2019 Mar 5:271678X19830791. doi: 10.1177/0271678X19830791. [Epub ahead of print]


Intracerebroventricular Delivery of Recombinant NAMPT Deters Inflammation and Protects Against Cerebral Ischemia.

Chen F, Weng Z, Xia Q, Cao C, Leak RK, Han L, Xiao J, Graham SH, Cao G.

Transl Stroke Res. 2019 Feb 28. doi: 10.1007/s12975-019-00692-0. [Epub ahead of print]


Corrigendum to "Brain ischemic preconditioning protects against ischemic injury and preserves the blood-brain barrier via oxidative signaling and Nrf2 activation" [Redox Biol. 17 (2018) 323-337].

Yang T, Sun Y, Mao L, Zhang M, Li Q, Zhang L, Shi Y, Leak RK, Chen J, Zhang F.

Redox Biol. 2019 Apr;22:101067. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2018.101067. Epub 2018 Dec 21. No abstract available.


Conditioning Against the Pathology of Parkinson's disease.

Leak RK.

Cond Med. 2018 Apr;1(3):143-162. Epub 2018 Apr 28.


Diabetes Mellitus Impairs White Matter Repair and Long-Term Functional Deficits After Cerebral Ischemia.

Ma S, Wang J, Wang Y, Dai X, Xu F, Gao X, Johnson J, Xu N, Leak RK, Hu X, Luo Y, Chen J.

Stroke. 2018 Oct;49(10):2453-2463. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.021452.


Transient selective brain cooling confers neurovascular and functional protection from acute to chronic stages of ischemia/reperfusion brain injury.

Zhao J, Mu H, Liu L, Jiang X, Wu D, Shi Y, Leak RK, Ji X.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2019 Jul;39(7):1215-1231. doi: 10.1177/0271678X18808174. Epub 2018 Oct 18.


Hormesis mediates dose-sensitive shifts in macrophage activation patterns.

Calabrese EJ, Giordano JJ, Kozumbo WJ, Leak RK, Bhatia TN.

Pharmacol Res. 2018 Nov;137:236-249. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2018.10.010. Epub 2018 Oct 13. Review.


Tissue plasminogen activator promotes white matter integrity and functional recovery in a murine model of traumatic brain injury.

Xia Y, Pu H, Leak RK, Shi Y, Mu H, Hu X, Lu Z, Foley LM, Hitchens TK, Dixon CE, Bennett MVL, Chen J.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Sep 25;115(39):E9230-E9238. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1810693115. Epub 2018 Sep 10.


A new era for stroke therapy: Integrating neurovascular protection with optimal reperfusion.

Shi L, Rocha M, Leak RK, Zhao J, Bhatia TN, Mu H, Wei Z, Yu F, Weiner SL, Ma F, Jovin TG, Chen J.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2018 Dec;38(12):2073-2091. doi: 10.1177/0271678X18798162. Epub 2018 Sep 7. Review.


Enhancing and Extending Biological Performance and Resilience.

Leak RK, Calabrese EJ, Kozumbo WJ, Gidday JM, Johnson TE, Mitchell JR, Ozaki CK, Wetzker R, Bast A, Belz RG, Bøtker HE, Koch S, Mattson MP, Simon RP, Jirtle RL, Andersen ME.

Dose Response. 2018 Aug 15;16(3):1559325818784501. doi: 10.1177/1559325818784501. eCollection 2018 Jul-Sep. Review.


Drug conjugates-an emerging approach to treat breast cancer.

Hasan M, Leak RK, Stratford RE, Zlotos DP, Witt-Enderby PA.

Pharmacol Res Perspect. 2018 Jul 5;6(4):e00417. doi: 10.1002/prp2.417. eCollection 2018 Jul. Review.


Promises and limitations of immune cell-based therapies in neurological disorders.

Hu X, Leak RK, Thomson AW, Yu F, Xia Y, Wechsler LR, Chen J.

Nat Rev Neurol. 2018 Sep;14(9):559-568. doi: 10.1038/s41582-018-0028-5. Review.


Brain ischemic preconditioning protects against ischemic injury and preserves the blood-brain barrier via oxidative signaling and Nrf2 activation.

Yang T, Sun Y, Mao L, Zhang M, Li Q, Zhang L, Shi Y, Leak RK, Chen J, Zhang F.

Redox Biol. 2018 Jul;17:323-337. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2018.05.001. Epub 2018 May 6. Erratum in: Redox Biol. 2019 Apr;22:101067.


Neurobiology of stroke: Research progress and perspectives.

Chen G, Leak RK, Sun Q, Zhang JH, Chen J.

Prog Neurobiol. 2018 Apr - May;163-164:1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2018.05.003. Epub 2018 May 4. No abstract available.


Procalcitonin as a Biomarker for Malignant Cerebral Edema in Massive Cerebral Infarction.

Zhang Y, Liu G, Wang Y, Su Y, Leak RK, Cao G.

Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 17;8(1):993. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-19267-4.


Oxidative stress and DNA damage after cerebral ischemia: Potential therapeutic targets to repair the genome and improve stroke recovery.

Li P, Stetler RA, Leak RK, Shi Y, Li Y, Yu W, Bennett MVL, Chen J.

Neuropharmacology. 2018 May 15;134(Pt B):208-217. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.11.011. Epub 2017 Nov 8. Review.


Evidence for cross-hemispheric preconditioning in experimental Parkinson's disease.

Weilnau JN, Carcella MA, Miner KM, Bhatia TN, Hutchison DF, Pant DB, Nouraei N, Leak RK.

Brain Struct Funct. 2018 Apr;223(3):1255-1273. doi: 10.1007/s00429-017-1552-6. Epub 2017 Nov 4.


Critical appraisal of pathology transmission in the α-synuclein fibril model of Lewy body disorders.

Nouraei N, Mason DM, Miner KM, Carcella MA, Bhatia TN, Dumm BK, Soni D, Johnson DA, Luk KC, Leak RK.

Exp Neurol. 2018 Jan;299(Pt A):172-196. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2017.10.017. Epub 2017 Oct 19.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ): A master gatekeeper in CNS injury and repair.

Cai W, Yang T, Liu H, Han L, Zhang K, Hu X, Zhang X, Yin KJ, Gao Y, Bennett MVL, Leak RK, Chen J.

Prog Neurobiol. 2018 Apr - May;163-164:27-58. doi: 10.1016/j.pneurobio.2017.10.002. Epub 2017 Oct 12. Review.


Implantation of Brain-Derived Extracellular Matrix Enhances Neurological Recovery after Traumatic Brain Injury.

Wu Y, Wang J, Shi Y, Pu H, Leak RK, Liou AKF, Badylak SF, Liu Z, Zhang J, Chen J, Chen L.

Cell Transplant. 2017 Jul;26(7):1224-1234. doi: 10.1177/0963689717714090.


Fast free-of-acrylamide clearing tissue (FACT)-an optimized new protocol for rapid, high-resolution imaging of three-dimensional brain tissue.

Xu N, Tamadon A, Liu Y, Ma T, Leak RK, Chen J, Gao Y, Feng Y.

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 29;7(1):9895. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-10204-5.


N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine Protects Astrocytes against Proteotoxicity without Recourse to Glutathione.

Gleixner AM, Hutchison DF, Sannino S, Bhatia TN, Leak LC, Flaherty PT, Wipf P, Brodsky JL, Leak RK.

Mol Pharmacol. 2017 Nov;92(5):564-575. doi: 10.1124/mol.117.109926. Epub 2017 Aug 22.


Curcumin Protects against Ischemic Stroke by Titrating Microglia/Macrophage Polarization.

Liu Z, Ran Y, Huang S, Wen S, Zhang W, Liu X, Ji Z, Geng X, Ji X, Du H, Leak RK, Hu X.

Front Aging Neurosci. 2017 Jul 21;9:233. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2017.00233. eCollection 2017.


Regulatory T cells ameliorate tissue plasminogen activator-induced brain haemorrhage after stroke.

Mao L, Li P, Zhu W, Cai W, Liu Z, Wang Y, Luo W, Stetler RA, Leak RK, Yu W, Gao Y, Chen J, Chen G, Hu X.

Brain. 2017 Jul 1;140(7):1914-1931. doi: 10.1093/brain/awx111.


Ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest produces a chronic striatal hyperdopaminergic state that is worsened by methylphenidate treatment.

Nora GJ, Harun R, Fine DF, Hutchison D, Grobart AC, Stezoski JP, Munoz MJ, Kochanek PM, Leak RK, Drabek T, Wagner AK.

J Neurochem. 2017 Jul;142(2):305-322. doi: 10.1111/jnc.14058. Epub 2017 Jun 1.


ST2/IL-33-Dependent Microglial Response Limits Acute Ischemic Brain Injury.

Yang Y, Liu H, Zhang H, Ye Q, Wang J, Yang B, Mao L, Zhu W, Leak RK, Xiao B, Lu B, Chen J, Hu X.

J Neurosci. 2017 May 3;37(18):4692-4704. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3233-16.2017. Epub 2017 Apr 7.


Endothelium-targeted overexpression of heat shock protein 27 ameliorates blood-brain barrier disruption after ischemic brain injury.

Shi Y, Jiang X, Zhang L, Pu H, Hu X, Zhang W, Cai W, Gao Y, Leak RK, Keep RF, Bennett MV, Chen J.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Feb 14;114(7):E1243-E1252. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1621174114. Epub 2017 Jan 30.


Preventive and Protective Roles of Dietary Nrf2 Activators Against Central Nervous System Diseases.

Sun Y, Yang T, Leak RK, Chen J, Zhang F.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2017;16(3):326-338. doi: 10.2174/1871527316666170102120211. Review.


Stem cell therapies in age-related neurodegenerative diseases and stroke.

Wang Y, Ji X, Leak RK, Chen F, Cao G.

Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Mar;34:39-50. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.11.002. Epub 2016 Nov 19. Review.


Aging of cerebral white matter.

Liu H, Yang Y, Xia Y, Zhu W, Leak RK, Wei Z, Wang J, Hu X.

Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Mar;34:64-76. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.11.006. Epub 2016 Nov 16. Review.


The impact of cerebrovascular aging on vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

Yang T, Sun Y, Lu Z, Leak RK, Zhang F.

Ageing Res Rev. 2017 Mar;34:15-29. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2016.09.007. Epub 2016 Sep 28. Review.


Rapid and sustained antidepressant properties of an NMDA antagonist/monoamine reuptake inhibitor identified via transporter-based virtual screening.

Talbot JN, Geffert LM, Jorvig JE, Goldstein RI, Nielsen CL, Wolters NE, Amos ME, Munro CA, Dallman E, Mereu M, Tanda G, Katz JL, Indarte M, Madura JD, Choi H, Leak RK, Surratt CK.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2016 Nov - Dec;150-151:22-30. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2016.08.007. Epub 2016 Aug 26.


Erratum to: Transmission of α-synucleinopathy from olfactory structures deep into the temporal lobe.

Mason DM, Nouraei N, Pant DB, Miner KM, Hutchison DF, Luk KC, Stolz JF, Leak RK.

Mol Neurodegener. 2016 Jul 27;11(1):57. No abstract available.


The Molecular Chaperone Hsc70 Interacts with Tyrosine Hydroxylase to Regulate Enzyme Activity and Synaptic Vesicle Localization.

Parra LA, Baust TB, Smith AD, Jaumotte JD, Zigmond MJ, Torres S, Leak RK, Pino JA, Torres GE.

J Biol Chem. 2016 Aug 19;291(34):17510-22. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.728782. Epub 2016 Jun 30.


Transmission of α-synucleinopathy from olfactory structures deep into the temporal lobe.

Mason DM, Nouraei N, Pant DB, Miner KM, Hutchison DF, Luk KC, Stolz JF, Leak RK.

Mol Neurodegener. 2016 Jun 30;11(1):49. doi: 10.1186/s13024-016-0113-4. Erratum in: Mol Neurodegener. 2016 Jul 27;11(1):57.


Neurotransmitter receptors on microglia.

Liu H, Leak RK, Hu X.

Stroke Vasc Neurol. 2016 Jun 24;1(2):52-58. doi: 10.1136/svn-2016-000012. eCollection 2016 Jun. Review.


APE1/Ref-1 facilitates recovery of gray and white matter and neurological function after mild stroke injury.

Stetler RA, Gao Y, Leak RK, Weng Z, Shi Y, Zhang L, Pu H, Zhang F, Hu X, Hassan S, Ferguson C, Homanics GE, Cao G, Bennett MV, Chen J.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Jun 21;113(25):E3558-67. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1606226113. Epub 2016 Jun 6.


Synergistic stress exacerbation in hippocampal neurons: Evidence favoring the dual-hit hypothesis of neurodegeneration.

Heinemann SD, Posimo JM, Mason DM, Hutchison DF, Leak RK.

Hippocampus. 2016 Aug;26(8):980-94. doi: 10.1002/hipo.22580. Epub 2016 Mar 29.


Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids mitigate blood-brain barrier disruption after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

Zhang W, Zhang H, Mu H, Zhu W, Jiang X, Hu X, Shi Y, Leak RK, Dong Q, Chen J, Gao Y.

Neurobiol Dis. 2016 Jul;91:37-46. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2016.02.020. Epub 2016 Feb 24.


Investigation of the therapeutic potential of N-acetyl cysteine and the tools used to define nigrostriatal degeneration in vivo.

Nouraei N, Zarger L, Weilnau JN, Han J, Mason DM, Leak RK.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016 Apr 1;296:19-30. doi: 10.1016/j.taap.2016.02.010. Epub 2016 Feb 12.


Rapid endothelial cytoskeletal reorganization enables early blood-brain barrier disruption and long-term ischaemic reperfusion brain injury.

Shi Y, Zhang L, Pu H, Mao L, Hu X, Jiang X, Xu N, Stetler RA, Zhang F, Liu X, Leak RK, Keep RF, Ji X, Chen J.

Nat Commun. 2016 Jan 27;7:10523. doi: 10.1038/ncomms10523.


Translational Stroke Research on Blood-Brain Barrier Damage: Challenges, Perspectives, and Goals.

Shi Y, Leak RK, Keep RF, Chen J.

Transl Stroke Res. 2016 Apr;7(2):89-92. doi: 10.1007/s12975-016-0447-9. Epub 2016 Jan 13. No abstract available.


Interleukin-4 Is Essential for Microglia/Macrophage M2 Polarization and Long-Term Recovery After Cerebral Ischemia.

Liu X, Liu J, Zhao S, Zhang H, Cai W, Cai M, Ji X, Leak RK, Gao Y, Chen J, Hu X.

Stroke. 2016 Feb;47(2):498-504. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.012079. Epub 2016 Jan 5.


Teaching Pharmacology Graduate Students how to Write an NIH Grant Application.

Leak RK, O'Donnell LA, Surratt CK.

Am J Pharm Educ. 2015 Nov 25;79(9):138. doi: 10.5688/ajpe799138.

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