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Zookeys. 2013 Jul 30;(319):119-35. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.319.4384. eCollection 2013.

Sex chromosome pre-reduction in male meiosis of Lethocerus patruelis (Stål, 1854) (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae) with some notes on the distribution of the species.

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Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tsar Osvoboditel Blvd 1, 1000 Sofia, Bulgaria.


The karyotype and meiosis in males of giant water bug Lethocerus patruelis (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae: Lethocerinae) were studied using standard and fluorochrome (CMA3 and DAPI) staining of chromosomes. The species was shown to have 2n = 22A + 2m + XY where 2m are a pair of microchromosomes. NORs are located in X and Y chromosomes. Within Belostomatidae, Lethocerus patruelis is unique in showing sex chromosome pre-reduction in male meiosis, with the sex chromosomes undergoing reductional division at anaphase I and equational division at anaphase II. Cytogenetic data on the family Belostomatidae are summarized and compared. In addition, the structure of the male internal reproductive organs of Lethocerus patruelis is presented, the contemporary distribution of Lethocerus patruelis in Bulgaria and in the northern Aegean Islands is discussed, and the first information about the breeding and nymphal development of this species in Bulgaria is provided.


Belostomatidae; Heteroptera; Karyotype; Lethocerus patruelis; NOR; distribution; male reproductive organs; meiosis; sex chromosome pre-reduction

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