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J Clin Microbiol. 1982 Jun;15(6):1133-40.

Escherichia vulneris: a new species of Enterobacteriaceae associated with human wounds.


The name Escherichia vulneris sp. nov. (formerly called Alma group 1 and Enteric group 1 by the Centers for Disease Control and API group 2 by Analytab Products, Inc.) is proposed for a group of isolates from the United States and Canada, 74% of which were from human wounds. E. vulneris is a gram-negative, oxidase-negative, fermentative, motile rod with the characteristics of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Biochemical reactions characteristic of 61 E. vulneris strains were positive tests for methyl red, malonate, and lysine decarboxylase; a delayed positive test for arginine dihydrolase; acid production from d-mannitol, l-arabinose, raffinose, l-rhamnose, d-xylose, trehalose, cellobiose, and melibiose; negative tests for Voges-Proskauer, indole, urea, H(2)S, citrate, ornithine decarboxylase, phenylalanine deaminase, and DNase; and no acid from dulcitol, adonitol, myo-inositol, and d-sorbitol. Two-thirds of the strains produced yellow pigment. Most strains gave negative or delayed positive reactions in tests for lactose, sucrose, and KCN. The E. vulneris strains tested were resistant to penicillin and clindamycin, were resistant or showed intermediate zones of inhibition to carbenicillin and erythromycin, and were susceptible to 14 other antibiotics. DNA relatedness of 15 E. vulneris strains to the type strain averaged 75% in reactions at 60 degrees C and 69% in reactions at 75 degrees C, indicating that they comprise a separate species. DNA relatedness to other species in the family Enterobacteriaceae was 6 to 39%, an indication that this new species belongs in the family. E. vulneris showed the highest relatedness to species of Escherichia (25 to 39%) and Enterobacter (24 to 35%). On the basis of biochemical similarity, the new species was placed in the genus Escherichia. The type strain of E. vulneris is ATCC 33821 (CDC 875-72).

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