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Orthopoxvirus targets for the development of new antiviral agents.

Prichard MN, Kern ER.

Antiviral Res. 2012 May;94(2):111-25. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2012.02.012. Epub 2012 Mar 8. Review.


Preclinical evaluation of a genetically engineered herpes simplex virus expressing interleukin-12.

Markert JM, Cody JJ, Parker JN, Coleman JM, Price KH, Kern ER, Quenelle DC, Lakeman AD, Schoeb TR, Palmer CA, Cartner SC, Gillespie GY, Whitley RJ.

J Virol. 2012 May;86(9):5304-13. doi: 10.1128/JVI.06998-11. Epub 2012 Feb 29.


Antiviral Activity of 4'-thioIDU and Thymidine Analogs against Orthopoxviruses.

Prichard MN, Kern ER.

Viruses. 2010 Sep;2(9):1968-83. doi: 10.3390/v2091968. Epub 2010 Sep 16.


Treatment of Vaccinia and Cowpox Virus Infections in Mice with CMX001 and ST-246.

Quenelle DC, Kern ER.

Viruses. 2010 Dec;2(12):2681-95. doi: 10.3390/v2122681. Epub 2010 Dec 13.


CMX001 potentiates the efficacy of acyclovir in herpes simplex virus infections.

Prichard MN, Kern ER, Hartline CB, Lanier ER, Quenelle DC.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Oct;55(10):4728-34. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00545-11. Epub 2011 Jul 25.


Cyclopropavir inhibits the normal function of the human cytomegalovirus UL97 kinase.

James SH, Hartline CB, Harden EA, Driebe EM, Schupp JM, Engelthaler DM, Keim PS, Bowlin TL, Kern ER, Prichard MN.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Oct;55(10):4682-91. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00571-11. Epub 2011 Jul 25.


Benzimidazole analogs inhibit human herpesvirus 6.

Prichard MN, Frederick SL, Daily S, Borysko KZ, Townsend LB, Drach JC, Kern ER.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 May;55(5):2442-5. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01523-10. Epub 2011 Feb 7.


The search for new therapies for human cytomegalovirus infections.

Prichard MN, Kern ER.

Virus Res. 2011 May;157(2):212-21. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2010.11.004. Epub 2010 Nov 21. Review.


Efficacy of CMX001 against herpes simplex virus infections in mice and correlations with drug distribution studies.

Quenelle DC, Lampert B, Collins DJ, Rice TL, Painter GR, Kern ER.

J Infect Dis. 2010 Nov 15;202(10):1492-9. doi: 10.1086/656717. Epub 2010 Oct 5.


Inhibition of herpesvirus replication by 5-substituted 4'-thiopyrimidine nucleosides.

Prichard MN, Quenelle DC, Hartline CB, Harden EA, Jefferson G, Frederick SL, Daily SL, Whitley RJ, Tiwari KN, Maddry JA, Secrist JA 3rd, Kern ER.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Dec;53(12):5251-8. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00417-09. Epub 2009 Sep 21.


Virucidal activity of polysaccharide extracts from four algal species against herpes simplex virus.

Harden EA, Falshaw R, Carnachan SM, Kern ER, Prichard MN.

Antiviral Res. 2009 Sep;83(3):282-9. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.06.007. Epub 2009 Jul 1.


National Institutes of Health consensus development conference statement: management of hepatitis B.

Sorrell MF, Belongia EA, Costa J, Gareen IF, Grem JL, Inadomi JM, Kern ER, McHugh JA, Petersen GM, Rein MF, Strader DB, Trotter HT.

Hepatology. 2009 May;49(5 Suppl):S4-S12. doi: 10.1002/hep.22946. No abstract available.


National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: management of hepatitis B.

Sorrell MF, Belongia EA, Costa J, Gareen IF, Grem JL, Inadomi JM, Kern ER, McHugh JA, Petersen GM, Rein MF, Strader DB, Trotter HT.

Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jan 20;150(2):104-10. Epub 2009 Jan 5. No abstract available.


Activities of certain 5-substituted 4'-thiopyrimidine nucleosides against orthopoxvirus infections.

Kern ER, Prichard MN, Quenelle DC, Keith KA, Tiwari KN, Maddry JA, Secrist JA 3rd.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Feb;53(2):572-9. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01257-08. Epub 2008 Nov 24.


NIH consensus development statement on management of hepatitis B.

Belongia EA, Costa J, Gareen IF, Grem JL, Inadomi JM, Kern ER, McHugh JA, Petersen GM, Rein MF, Sorrell MF, Strader DB, Trotter HT.

NIH Consens State Sci Statements. 2008 Oct 22-24;25(2):1-29.


Inhibition of herpesvirus replication by hexadecyloxypropyl esters of purine- and pyrimidine-based phosphonomethoxyethyl nucleoside phosphonates.

Prichard MN, Hartline CB, Harden EA, Daily SL, Beadle JR, Valiaeva N, Kern ER, Hostetler KY.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Dec;52(12):4326-30. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00918-08. Epub 2008 Oct 13.


Effect of an immune enhancer, GPI-0100, on vaccination with live attenuated herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 or glycoprotein D on genital HSV-2 infections of guinea pigs.

Quenelle DC, Collins DJ, Rice TL, Prichard MN, Marciani DJ, Kern ER.

Antiviral Res. 2008 Nov;80(2):223-4. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.05.011. Epub 2008 Jun 23.


Amphipathic DNA polymers exhibit antiherpetic activity in vitro and in vivo.

Bernstein DI, Goyette N, Cardin R, Kern ER, Boivin G, Ireland J, Juteau JM, Vaillant A.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Aug;52(8):2727-33. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00279-08. Epub 2008 May 27.


Isolation and characterization of cidofovir resistant vaccinia viruses.

Becker MN, Obraztsova M, Kern ER, Quenelle DC, Keith KA, Prichard MN, Luo M, Moyer RW.

Virol J. 2008 May 14;5:58. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-5-58.


Effect of oral treatment with (S)-HPMPA, HDP-(S)-HPMPA or ODE-(S)-HPMPA on replication of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) or human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in animal models.

Quenelle DC, Collins DJ, Pettway LR, Hartline CB, Beadle JR, Wan WB, Hostetler KY, Kern ER.

Antiviral Res. 2008 Aug;79(2):133-5. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.01.155. Epub 2008 Feb 22.


Human cytomegalovirus UL97 kinase activity is required for the hyperphosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein and inhibits the formation of nuclear aggresomes.

Prichard MN, Sztul E, Daily SL, Perry AL, Frederick SL, Gill RB, Hartline CB, Streblow DN, Varnum SM, Smith RD, Kern ER.

J Virol. 2008 May;82(10):5054-67. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02174-07. Epub 2008 Mar 5.


Effect of oral treatment with hexadecyloxypropyl-[(S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2- phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine] [(S)-HPMPA] or octadecyloxyethyl-(S)-HPMPA on cowpox or vaccinia virus infections in mice.

Quenelle DC, Collins DJ, Herrod BP, Keith KA, Trahan J, Beadle JR, Hostetler KY, Kern ER.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Nov;51(11):3940-7. Epub 2007 Sep 10.


Synergistic efficacy of the combination of ST-246 with CMX001 against orthopoxviruses.

Quenelle DC, Prichard MN, Keith KA, Hruby DE, Jordan R, Painter GR, Robertson A, Kern ER.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Nov;51(11):4118-24. Epub 2007 Aug 27.


A rapid DNA hybridization assay for the evaluation of antiviral compounds against Epstein-Barr virus.

Prichard MN, Daily SL, Jefferson GM, Perry AL, Kern ER.

J Virol Methods. 2007 Sep;144(1-2):86-90. Epub 2007 May 30.


Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of alkoxyalkyl-phosphate conjugates of cidofovir and adefovir.

Ruiz JC, Beadle JR, Aldern KA, Keith KA, Hartline CB, Kern ER, Hostetler KY.

Antiviral Res. 2007 Jul;75(1):87-90. Epub 2006 Oct 10.


N-(3,3a,4,4a,5,5a,6,6a-Octahydro-1,3-dioxo-4,6- ethenocycloprop[f]isoindol-2-(1H)-yl)carboxamides: Identification of novel orthopoxvirus egress inhibitors.

Bailey TR, Rippin SR, Opsitnick E, Burns CJ, Pevear DC, Collett MS, Rhodes G, Tohan S, Huggins JW, Baker RO, Kern ER, Keith KA, Dai D, Yang G, Hruby D, Jordan R.

J Med Chem. 2007 Apr 5;50(7):1442-4. Epub 2007 Mar 3.


Selective phosphorylation of antiviral drugs by vaccinia virus thymidine kinase.

Prichard MN, Keith KA, Johnson MP, Harden EA, McBrayer A, Luo M, Qiu S, Chattopadhyay D, Fan X, Torrence PF, Kern ER.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 May;51(5):1795-803. Epub 2007 Feb 26.


Antiviral activities of novel 5-phosphono-pent-2-en-1-yl nucleosides and their alkoxyalkyl phosphonoesters.

Choo H, Beadle JR, Kern ER, Prichard MN, Keith KA, Hartline CB, Trahan J, Aldern KA, Korba BE, Hostetler KY.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Feb;51(2):611-5. Epub 2006 Nov 27.


Efficacy of delayed treatment with ST-246 given orally against systemic orthopoxvirus infections in mice.

Quenelle DC, Buller RM, Parker S, Keith KA, Hruby DE, Jordan R, Kern ER.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007 Feb;51(2):689-95. Epub 2006 Nov 20.


Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of alkoxyalkyl esters of phosphonopropoxymethyl-guanine and phosphonopropoxymethyl-diaminopurine.

Ruiz JC, Aldern KA, Beadle JR, Hartline CB, Kern ER, Hostetler KY.

Antivir Chem Chemother. 2006;17(2):89-95.


9-{[3-fluoro-2-(hydroxymethyl)cyclopropylidene]methyl}adenines and -guanines. Synthesis and antiviral activity of all stereoisomers1.

Zhou S, Kern ER, Gullen E, Cheng YC, Drach JC, Tamiya S, Mitsuya H, Zemlicka J.

J Med Chem. 2006 Oct 5;49(20):6120-8.


Pivotal role of animal models in the development of new therapies for cytomegalovirus infections.

Kern ER.

Antiviral Res. 2006 Sep;71(2-3):164-71. Epub 2006 Jun 19. Review.


Toward orthopoxvirus countermeasures: a novel heteromorphic nucleoside of unusual structure.

Fan X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Keith KA, Prichard MN, Kern ER, Torrence PF.

J Med Chem. 2006 Jul 13;49(14):4052-4.


Assembling a smallpox biodefense by interrogating 5-substituted pyrimidine nucleoside chemical space.

Fan X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Keith KA, Kern ER, Torrence PF.

Antiviral Res. 2006 Sep;71(2-3):201-5. Epub 2006 May 19.


Synthesis of Methylenecyclopropane Analogues of Antiviral Nucleoside Phosphonates.

Yan Z, Zhou S, Kern ER, Zemlicka J.

Tetrahedron. 2006 Mar 13;62(11):2608-2615.


5-(Dimethoxymethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine: a novel gem diether nucleoside with anti-orthopoxvirus activity.

Fan X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Keith KA, Kern ER, Torrence PF.

J Med Chem. 2006 Jun 1;49(11):3377-82.


In vitro and in vivo evaluation of isatin-beta-thiosemicarbazone and marboran against vaccinia and cowpox virus infections.

Quenelle DC, Keith KA, Kern ER.

Antiviral Res. 2006 Aug;71(1):24-30. Epub 2006 Mar 29.


A pyrimidine-pyrazolone nucleoside chimera with potent in vitro anti-orthopoxvirus activity.

Fan X, Zhang X, Zhou L, Keith KA, Kern ER, Torrence PF.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Jun 15;16(12):3224-8. Epub 2006 Apr 5.


Human cytomegalovirus UL27 is not required for viral replication in human tissue implanted in SCID mice.

Prichard MN, Quenelle DC, Bidanset DJ, Komazin G, Chou S, Drach JC, Kern ER.

Virol J. 2006 Mar 29;3:18.


Activity and mechanism of action of N-methanocarbathymidine against herpesvirus and orthopoxvirus infections.

Prichard MN, Keith KA, Quenelle DC, Kern ER.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Apr;50(4):1336-41.


Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of alkoxyalkyl derivatives of 9-(S)-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonomethoxypropyl)adenine against cytomegalovirus and orthopoxviruses.

Beadle JR, Wan WB, Ciesla SL, Keith KA, Hartline C, Kern ER, Hostetler KY.

J Med Chem. 2006 Mar 23;49(6):2010-5.


Distinct thymidine kinases encoded by cowpox virus and herpes simplex virus contribute significantly to the differential antiviral activity of nucleoside analogs.

Prichard MN, Williams AD, Keith KA, Harden EA, Kern ER.

Antiviral Res. 2006 Aug;71(1):1-6. Epub 2006 Feb 28.


Synthesis of cyclopentenyl carbocyclic nucleosides as potential antiviral agents against orthopoxviruses and SARS.

Cho JH, Bernard DL, Sidwell RW, Kern ER, Chu CK.

J Med Chem. 2006 Feb 9;49(3):1140-8.


Phosphoralaninate pronucleotides of pyrimidine methylenecyclopropane analogues of nucleosides: synthesis and antiviral activity.

Ambrose A, Zemlicka J, Kern ER, Drach JC, Gullen E, Cheng YC.

Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2005;24(10-12):1763-74.


Synthesis and antiviral activities of 1,2,3-triazole functionalized thymidines: 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition for efficient regioselective diversity generation.

Zhou L, Amer A, Korn M, Burda R, Balzarini J, De Clercq E, Kern ER, Torrence PF.

Antivir Chem Chemother. 2005;16(6):375-83.


Human cytomegalovirus UL97 Kinase is required for the normal intranuclear distribution of pp65 and virion morphogenesis.

Prichard MN, Britt WJ, Daily SL, Hartline CB, Kern ER.

J Virol. 2005 Dec;79(24):15494-502.


Effect of immunization with herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D (gD) plus the immune enhancer GPI-0100 on infection with HSV-1 or HSV-2.

Quenelle DC, Collins DJ, Marciani DJ, Kern ER.

Vaccine. 2006 Mar 6;24(10):1515-22. Epub 2005 Oct 24.


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