Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Sci Adv. 2017 Jan 11;3(1):e1601558. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1601558. eCollection 2017 Jan.

Energy penetration into arrays of aligned nanowires irradiated with relativistic intensities: Scaling to terabar pressures.

Author information

1
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
2
Departamento de Física, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
3
Institut für Theoretische Physik, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf, Germany.
4
Physics Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
5
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551, USA.
6
ARTEP Inc., Ellicott City, MD 21042, USA.
7
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.; Physics Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Abstract

Ultrahigh-energy density (UHED) matter, characterized by energy densities >1 × 108 J cm-3 and pressures greater than a gigabar, is encountered in the center of stars and inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world's largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultrahigh contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto targets composed of aligned nanowire arrays. We report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high-aspect-ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration. By monitoring the x-ray emission from buried Co tracer segments in Ni nanowire arrays irradiated at an intensity of 4 × 1019 W cm-2, we demonstrate energy penetration depths of several micrometers, leading to UHED plasmas of that size. Relativistic three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, validated by these measurements, predict that irradiation of nanostructures at intensities of >1 × 1022 W cm-2 will lead to a virtually unexplored extreme UHED plasma regime characterized by energy densities in excess of 8 × 1010 J cm-3, equivalent to a pressure of 0.35 Tbar.

KEYWORDS:

Laser matter interaction; relativistic plasmas; ultra-high energy density matter; ultra-high energy density plasmas

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center