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Key bioactive reaction products of the NO/H2S interaction are S/N-hybrid species, polysulfides, and nitroxyl.

Cortese-Krott MM, Kuhnle GG, Dyson A, Fernandez BO, Grman M, DuMond JF, Barrow MP, McLeod G, Nakagawa H, Ondrias K, Nagy P, King SB, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Singer M, Kelm M, Butler AR, Feelisch M.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Aug 25;112(34):E4651-60. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1509277112. Epub 2015 Jul 29.


PABA/NO lead optimization: Improved targeting of cytotoxicity to glutathione S-transferase P1-overexpressing cancer cells.

Kim Y, Maciag AE, Cao Z, Deschamps JR, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Holland RJ.

Bioorg Med Chem. 2015 Aug 1;23(15):4980-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2015.05.020. Epub 2015 May 19.


Hepatoselective Nitric Oxide (NO) Donors, V-PYRRO/NO and V-PROLI/NO, in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Comparison of Antisteatotic Effects with the Biotransformation and Pharmacokinetics.

Kus K, Walczak M, Maslak E, Zakrzewska A, Gonciarz-Dytman A, Zabielski P, Sitek B, Wandzel K, Kij A, Chabowski A, Holland RJ, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Chlopicki S.

Drug Metab Dispos. 2015 Jul;43(7):1028-36. doi: 10.1124/dmd.115.063388. Epub 2015 Apr 13.


The liver-selective NO donor, V-PYRRO/NO, protects against liver steatosis and improves postprandial glucose tolerance in mice fed high fat diet.

Maslak E, Zabielski P, Kochan K, Kus K, Jasztal A, Sitek B, Proniewski B, Wojcik T, Gula K, Kij A, Walczak M, Baranska M, Chabowski A, Holland RJ, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Chlopicki S.

Biochem Pharmacol. 2015 Feb 1;93(3):389-400. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2014.12.004. Epub 2014 Dec 19.


Assay reproducibility and interindividual variation for 15 serum estrogens and estrogen metabolites measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Fuhrman BJ, Xu X, Falk RT, Dallal CM, Veenstra TD, Keefer LK, Graubard BI, Brinton LA, Ziegler RG, Gierach GL.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Dec;23(12):2649-57. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-0438.


Direct reaction of amides with nitric oxide to form diazeniumdiolates.

Holland RJ, Klose JR, Deschamps JR, Cao Z, Keefer LK, Saavedra JE.

J Org Chem. 2014 Oct 3;79(19):9389-93. doi: 10.1021/jo501670e. Epub 2014 Sep 22.


Analysis of the HNO and NO donating properties of alicyclic amine diazeniumdiolates.

Bharadwaj G, Benini PG, Basudhar D, Ramos-Colon CN, Johnson GM, Larriva MM, Keefer LK, Andrei D, Miranda KM.

Nitric Oxide. 2014 Nov 15;42:70-8. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2014.08.013. Epub 2014 Sep 2.


Aminolysis of an N-diazeniumdiolated amidine as an approach to diazeniumdiolated ammonia.

Biswas D, Hrabie JA, Saavedra JE, Cao Z, Keefer LK, Ivanic J, Holland RJ.

J Org Chem. 2014 May 16;79(10):4512-6. doi: 10.1021/jo500551n. Epub 2014 May 5.


Nitric oxide (NO) releasing poly ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) inhibitors targeted to glutathione S-transferase P1-overexpressing cancer cells.

Maciag AE, Holland RJ, Kim Y, Kumari V, Luthers CE, Sehareen WS, Biswas D, Morris NL, Ji X, Anderson LM, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK.

J Med Chem. 2014 Mar 27;57(6):2292-302. doi: 10.1021/jm401550d. Epub 2014 Feb 25.


Mechanism of action for the cytotoxic effects of the nitric oxide prodrug JS-K in murine erythroleukemia cells.

Kaczmarek MZ, Holland RJ, Lavanier SA, Troxler JA, Fesenkova VI, Hanson CA, Cmarik JL, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Ruscetti SK.

Leuk Res. 2014 Mar;38(3):377-82. doi: 10.1016/j.leukres.2013.12.002. Epub 2013 Dec 12.


Enzymatic generation of the NO/HNO-releasing IPA/NO anion at controlled rates in physiological media using β-galactosidase.

Holland RJ, Paulisch R, Cao Z, Keefer LK, Saavedra JE, Donzelli S.

Nitric Oxide. 2013 Nov 30;35:131-6. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2013.10.003. Epub 2013 Oct 11.


Nitric oxide-releasing prodrug triggers cancer cell death through deregulation of cellular redox balance.

Maciag AE, Holland RJ, Robert Cheng YS, Rodriguez LG, Saavedra JE, Anderson LM, Keefer LK.

Redox Biol. 2013 Feb 1;1:115-24. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2012.12.002. eCollection 2013.


Decoding nitric oxide release rates of amine-based diazeniumdiolates.

Wang YN, Collins J, Holland RJ, Keefer LK, Ivanic J.

J Phys Chem A. 2013 Aug 1;117(30):6671-7. doi: 10.1021/jp404589p. Epub 2013 Jul 23.


Green tea intake is associated with urinary estrogen profiles in Japanese-American women.

Fuhrman BJ, Pfeiffer RM, Wu AH, Xu X, Keefer LK, Veenstra TD, Ziegler RG.

Nutr J. 2013 Feb 15;12:25. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-25.


Effects of the nitric oxide donor JS-K on the blood-tumor barrier and on orthotopic U87 rat gliomas assessed by MRI.

Weidensteiner C, Reichardt W, Shami PJ, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Baumer B, Werres A, Jasinski R, Osterberg N, Weyerbrock A.

Nitric Oxide. 2013 Apr 1;30:17-25. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2013.01.003. Epub 2013 Jan 28.


O2-functionalized methylamine diazeniumdiolates: evidence for E ⇄ Z equilibration in an acyclic system.

Biswas D, Holland RJ, Deschamps JR, Cao Z, Keefer LK, Saavedra JE.

J Org Chem. 2012 Dec 7;77(23):10804-10. doi: 10.1021/jo3020837. Epub 2012 Nov 20.


Cross-linking protein glutathionylation mediated by O2-arylated bis-diazeniumdiolate "Double JS-K".

Holland RJ, Maciag AE, Kumar V, Shi L, Saavedra JE, Prud'homme RK, Chakrapani H, Keefer LK.

Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 Dec 17;25(12):2670-7. doi: 10.1021/tx3003142. Epub 2012 Nov 9.


Richard Loeppky (1937-2012).

Eisenbrand G, Gates KS, Hecht SS, Janzowski C, Keefer LK, Marnett LJ, Tannenbaum SR.

Chem Res Toxicol. 2012 Jun 18;25(6):1155-6. doi: 10.1021/tx300219b. Epub 2012 May 25. No abstract available.


Nitrous oxide as a primary product in base-mediated β-elimination reactions of diazeniumdiolated benzylamine derivatives.

Biswas D, Cao Z, Keefer LK, Saavedra JE.

Chem Commun (Camb). 2012 Jun 14;48(47):5931-3. doi: 10.1039/c2cc32284f. Epub 2012 May 9.


Structural modifications modulate stability of glutathione-activated arylated diazeniumdiolate prodrugs.

Nandurdikar RS, Maciag AE, Holland RJ, Cao Z, Shami PJ, Anderson LM, Keefer LK, Saavedra JE.

Bioorg Med Chem. 2012 May 1;20(9):3094-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2012.02.045. Epub 2012 Mar 9.


Diazeniumdiolated carbamates: a novel class of nitric oxide donors.

Nandurdikar RS, Maciag AE, Cao Z, Keefer LK, Saavedra JE.

Bioorg Med Chem. 2012 Mar 15;20(6):2025-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2012.01.046. Epub 2012 Feb 4.


Estrogen metabolism and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

Fuhrman BJ, Schairer C, Gail MH, Boyd-Morin J, Xu X, Sue LY, Buys SS, Isaacs C, Keefer LK, Veenstra TD, Berg CD, Hoover RN, Ziegler RG.

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2012 Feb 22;104(4):326-39. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djr531. Epub 2012 Jan 9.


Thiol Modification By Pharmacologically Active Agents of the Diazeniumdiolate Class.

Maciag AE, Holland RJ, Saavedra JE, Chakrapani H, Shami PJ, Keefer LK.

For Immunopathol Dis Therap. 2012;3(2):91-95.


Urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites and subsequent risk of breast cancer among premenopausal women.

Eliassen AH, Spiegelman D, Xu X, Keefer LK, Veenstra TD, Barbieri RL, Willett WC, Hankinson SE, Ziegler RG.

Cancer Res. 2012 Feb 1;72(3):696-706. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-2507. Epub 2011 Dec 5.


The role of estrogen receptor α and β in regulating vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation is based on sex.

Hogg ME, Vavra AK, Banerjee MN, Martinez J, Jiang Q, Keefer LK, Chambon P, Kibbe MR.

J Surg Res. 2012 Mar;173(1):e1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2011.09.021. Epub 2011 Oct 8.


Activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) pathway characterizes effective arylated diazeniumdiolate-based nitric oxide-releasing anticancer prodrugs.

Maciag AE, Nandurdikar RS, Hong SY, Chakrapani H, Diwan B, Morris NL, Shami PJ, Shiao YH, Anderson LM, Keefer LK, Saavedra JE.

J Med Chem. 2011 Nov 24;54(22):7751-8. doi: 10.1021/jm2004128. Epub 2011 Oct 28.


Fifty years of diazeniumdiolate research. From laboratory curiosity to broad-spectrum biomedical advances.

Keefer LK.

ACS Chem Biol. 2011 Nov 18;6(11):1147-55. doi: 10.1021/cb200274r. Epub 2011 Sep 30. Review.


JS-K, a glutathione S-transferase-activated nitric oxide donor with antineoplastic activity in malignant gliomas.

Weyerbrock A, Osterberg N, Psarras N, Baumer B, Kogias E, Werres A, Bette S, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Papazoglou A.

Neurosurgery. 2012 Feb;70(2):497-510; discussion 510. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31823209cf.


Nitric oxide donor, V-PROLI/NO, provides protection against arsenical induced toxicity in rat liver cells: requirement for Cyp1a1.

Qu W, Cheng L, Dill AL, Saavedra JE, Hong SY, Keefer LK, Waalkes MP.

Chem Biol Interact. 2011 Aug 15;193(1):88-96. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2011.05.005. Epub 2011 May 20.


Novel protection-deprotection strategies in diazeniumdiolate chemistry: synthesis of V-IPA/NO.

Nandurdikar RS, Keefer LK, Saavedra JE.

Chem Commun (Camb). 2011 Jun 21;47(23):6710-2. doi: 10.1039/c1cc12130h. Epub 2011 May 10.


Insights into the effect of nitric oxide and its metabolites nitrite and nitrate at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia.

Vavra AK, Havelka GE, Martinez J, Lee VR, Fu B, Jiang Q, Keefer LK, Kibbe MR.

Nitric Oxide. 2011 Jun 30;25(1):22-30. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2011.04.013. Epub 2011 Apr 30.


Growth-inhibitory and chemosensitizing effects of the glutathione-S-transferase-π-activated nitric oxide donor PABA/NO in malignant gliomas.

Kogias E, Osterberg N, Baumer B, Psarras N, Koentges C, Papazoglou A, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Weyerbrock A.

Int J Cancer. 2012 Mar 1;130(5):1184-94. doi: 10.1002/ijc.26106. Epub 2011 Jul 21.


Nitric oxide inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and neointimal hyperplasia by increasing the ubiquitination and degradation of UbcH10.

Tsihlis ND, Oustwani CS, Vavra AK, Jiang Q, Keefer LK, Kibbe MR.

Cell Biochem Biophys. 2011 Jun;60(1-2):89-97. doi: 10.1007/s12013-011-9179-3.


HNO and NO release from a primary amine-based diazeniumdiolate as a function of pH.

Salmon DJ, Torres de Holding CL, Thomas L, Peterson KV, Goodman GP, Saavedra JE, Srinivasan A, Davies KM, Keefer LK, Miranda KM.

Inorg Chem. 2011 Apr 18;50(8):3262-70. doi: 10.1021/ic101736e. Epub 2011 Mar 15.


Poly(diol-co-citrate)s as novel elastomeric perivascular wraps for the reduction of neointimal hyperplasia.

Serrano MC, Vavra AK, Jen M, Hogg ME, Murar J, Martinez J, Keefer LK, Ameer GA, Kibbe MR.

Macromol Biosci. 2011 May 12;11(5):700-9. doi: 10.1002/mabi.201000509. Epub 2011 Feb 21.


JS-K, a nitric oxide-releasing prodrug, induces breast cancer cell death while sparing normal mammary epithelial cells.

McMurtry V, Saavedra JE, Nieves-Alicea R, Simeone AM, Keefer LK, Tari AM.

Int J Oncol. 2011 Apr;38(4):963-71. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2011.925. Epub 2011 Jan 25.


Effect of nitric oxide on neointimal hyperplasia based on sex and hormone status.

Hogg ME, Varu VN, Vavra AK, Popowich DA, Banerjee MN, Martinez J, Jiang Q, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Kibbe MR.

Free Radic Biol Med. 2011 May 1;50(9):1065-74. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.01.016. Epub 2011 Jan 21.


The Nitric Oxide Prodrug V-PROLI/NO Inhibits Cellular Uptake of Proline.

Hong SY, Borchert GL, Maciag AE, Nandurdikar RS, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Phang JM, Chakrapani H.

ACS Med Chem Lett. 2010 Nov 11;1(8):386-389.


Stability of 15 estrogens and estrogen metabolites in urine samples under processing and storage conditions typically used in epidemiologic studies.

Fuhrman BJ, Xu X, Falk RT, Hankinson SE, Veenstra TD, Keefer LK, Ziegler RG.

Int J Biol Markers. 2010 Oct-Dec;25(4):185-94.


Tailored Synthesis of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Polyurethanes Using O-Protected Diazeniumdiolated Chain Extenders.

Reynolds MM, Saavedra JE, Showalter BM, Valdez CA, Shanklin AP, Oh BK, Keefer LK, Meyerhoff ME.

J Mater Chem. 2010 Jan 1;20(15):3107-2114.


Differential effects of nitric oxide on blood-brain barrier integrity and cerebral blood flow in intracerebral C6 gliomas.

Weyerbrock A, Walbridge S, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Oldfield EH.

Neuro Oncol. 2011 Feb;13(2):203-11. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/noq161. Epub 2010 Nov 1.


Dual mechanisms of HNO generation by a nitroxyl prodrug of the diazeniumdiolate (NONOate) class.

Andrei D, Salmon DJ, Donzelli S, Wahab A, Klose JR, Citro ML, Saavedra JE, Wink DA, Miranda KM, Keefer LK.

J Am Chem Soc. 2010 Nov 24;132(46):16526-32. doi: 10.1021/ja106552p. Epub 2010 Oct 29.


The nitric oxide prodrug JS-K is effective against non-small-cell lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo: involvement of reactive oxygen species.

Maciag AE, Chakrapani H, Saavedra JE, Morris NL, Holland RJ, Kosak KM, Shami PJ, Anderson LM, Keefer LK.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Feb;336(2):313-20. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.174904. Epub 2010 Oct 20.


Macrophage-dependent nitric oxide expression regulates tumor cell detachment and metastasis after IL-2/anti-CD40 immunotherapy.

Weiss JM, Ridnour LA, Back T, Hussain SP, He P, Maciag AE, Keefer LK, Murphy WJ, Harris CC, Wink DA, Wiltrout RH.

J Exp Med. 2010 Oct 25;207(11):2455-67. doi: 10.1084/jem.20100670. Epub 2010 Oct 4.


"Click" reaction in conjunction with diazeniumdiolate chemistry: developing high-load nitric oxide donors.

Oladeinde OA, Hong SY, Holland RJ, Maciag AE, Keefer LK, Saavedra JE, Nandurdikar RS.

Org Lett. 2010 Oct 1;12(19):4256-9. doi: 10.1021/ol101645k.


JS-K, a nitric oxide-releasing prodrug, modulates ß-catenin/TCF signaling in leukemic Jurkat cells: evidence of an S-nitrosylated mechanism.

Nath N, Chattopadhyay M, Pospishil L, Cieciura LZ, Goswami S, Kodela R, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Kashfi K.

Biochem Pharmacol. 2010 Dec 1;80(11):1641-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2010.08.011. Epub 2010 Aug 24.


JS-K has potent anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and inhibits tumour angiogenesis in a multiple myeloma model in vivo.

Kiziltepe T, Anderson KC, Kutok JL, Jia L, Boucher KM, Saavedra JE, Keefer LK, Shami PJ.

J Pharm Pharmacol. 2010 Jan;62(1):145-51. doi: 10.1211/jpp.62.01.0017.


Comparison between 3-Nitrooxyphenyl acetylsalicylate (NO-ASA) and O2-(acetylsalicyloxymethyl)-1-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (NONO-ASA) as safe anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antioxidant prodrugs.

Chattopadhyay M, Velazquez CA, Pruski A, Nia KV, Abdellatif KR, Keefer LK, Kashfi K.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Nov;335(2):443-50. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.171017. Epub 2010 Aug 2. Erratum in: J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Dec;335(3):861.


Nitrogen-bound diazeniumdiolated amidines.

Biswas D, Deschamps JR, Keefer LK, Hrabie JA.

Chem Commun (Camb). 2010 Aug 21;46(31):5799-801. doi: 10.1039/c0cc00849d. Epub 2010 Jun 30.


Broad-Spectrum Anti-Cancer Activity of O-Arylated Diazeniumdiolates.

Keefer LK; behalf of the JS-K Consortium.

For Immunopathol Dis Therap. 2010 Jul 1;1(3):205-218.

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