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Science. 2019 Dec 6;366(6470). pii: eaay9070. doi: 10.1126/science.aay9070. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Cyclic lava effusion during the 2018 eruption of Kīlauea Volcano.

Author information

1
U.S. Geological Survey, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Hilo, HI 96720, USA. mpatrick@usgs.gov.
2
U.S. Geological Survey, Alaska Volcano Observatory, Anchorage, AK 99508, USA.
3
U.S. Geological Survey, Cascades Volcano Observatory, Vancouver, WA 98683, USA.
4
U.S. Geological Survey, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, Hilo, HI 96720, USA.
5
U.S. Geological Survey, California Volcano Observatory, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA.
6
School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8521, Japan.
7
Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, 920-1192, Japan.

Abstract

Lava flows present a recurring threat to communities on active volcanoes, and volumetric eruption rate is one of the primary factors controlling flow behavior and hazard. The time scales and driving forces of eruption rate variability, however, remain poorly understood. In 2018, a highly destructive eruption occurred on the lower flank of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, where the primary vent exhibited substantial cyclic eruption rates on both short (minutes) and long (tens of hours) time scales. We used multiparameter data to show that the short cycles were driven by shallow outgassing, whereas longer cycles were pressure-driven surges in magma supply triggered by summit caldera collapse events 40 kilometers upslope. The results provide a clear link between eruption rate fluctuations and their driving processes in the magmatic system.

PMID:
31806788
DOI:
10.1126/science.aay9070

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