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Mol Cancer Res. 2006 Aug;4(8):575-89.

Mitotic arrest, apoptosis, and sensitization to chemotherapy of melanomas by methionine deprivation stress.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. kokkinakisdm@thiogenics.com

Abstract

Methionine deprivation stress (MDS) eliminates mitotic activity in melanoma cells regardless of stage, grade, or TP53 status, whereas it has a negligible effect on normal skin fibroblasts. In most cases, apoptosis accounts for the elimination of up to 90% of tumor cells from the culture within 72 hours after MDS, leaving a scattered population of multinucleated resistant cells. Loss of mitosis in tumor cells is associated with marked reduction of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1 transcription and/or loss of its active form (CDK1-P-Thr(161)), which is coincident with up-regulation of CDKN1A, CDKN1B, and CDKN1C (p21, p27, and p57). Expression of the proapoptotic LITAF, IFNGR, EREG, TNFSF/TNFRSF10 and TNFRSF12, FAS, and RNASEL is primarily up-regulated/induced in cells destined to undergo apoptosis. Loss of Aurora kinase B and BIRC5, which are required for histone H3 phosphorylation, is associated with the accumulation of surviving multinucleated cells. Nevertheless, noncycling survivors of MDS are sensitized to temozolomide, carmustin, and cisplatin to a much greater extent than normal skin fibroblasts possibly because of the suppression of MGMT/TOP1/POLB, MGMT/RAD52/RAD54, and cMET/RADD52, respectively. Sensitivity to these and additional genotoxic agents and radiation may also be acquired due to loss of cMET/OGG1, reduced glutathione reductase levels, and a G(2)-phase block that is a crucial step in the damage response associated with enhancement of drug toxicity. Although the genes controlling mitotic arrest and/or apoptosis in response to low extracellular methionine levels are unknown, it is likely that such control is exerted via the induction/up-regulation of tumor suppressors/growth inhibitor genes, such as TGFB, PTEN, GAS1, EGR3, BTG3, MDA7, and the proteoglycans (LUM, BGN, and DCN), as well as the down-regulation/loss of function of prosurvival genes, such as NFkappaB, MYC, and ERBB2. Although MDS targets several common genes in tumors, mutational variability among melanomas may decide which metabolic and signal transduction pathways will be activated or shutdown.

PMID:
16908595
DOI:
10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-05-0240
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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