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Entry of Polarized Effector Cells into Quiescence Forces HIV Latency.

Dobrowolski C, Valadkhan S, Graham AC, Shukla M, Ciuffi A, Telenti A, Karn J.

MBio. 2019 Mar 26;10(2). pii: e00337-19. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00337-19.


An ultra-high affinity ligand of HIV-1 TAR reveals the RNA structure recognized by P-TEFb.

Shortridge MD, Wille PT, Jones AN, Davidson A, Bogdanovic J, Arts E, Karn J, Robinson JA, Varani G.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 Feb 20;47(3):1523-1531. doi: 10.1093/nar/gky1197.


Exosomes derived from HIV-1-infected cells promote growth and progression of cancer via HIV TAR RNA.

Chen L, Feng Z, Yue H, Bazdar D, Mbonye U, Zender C, Harding CV, Bruggeman L, Karn J, Sieg SF, Wang B, Jin G.

Nat Commun. 2018 Nov 2;9(1):4585. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-07006-2.


Sex-Based Differences in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reservoir Activity and Residual Immune Activation.

Scully EP, Gandhi M, Johnston R, Hoh R, Lockhart A, Dobrowolski C, Pagliuzza A, Milush JM, Baker CA, Girling V, Ellefson A, Gorelick R, Lifson J, Altfeld M, Alter G, Cedars M, Solomon A, Lewin SR, Karn J, Chomont N, Bacchetti P, Deeks SG.

J Infect Dis. 2019 Mar 15;219(7):1084-1094. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy617.


Estrogen receptor-1 is a key regulator of HIV-1 latency that imparts gender-specific restrictions on the latent reservoir.

Das B, Dobrowolski C, Luttge B, Valadkhan S, Chomont N, Johnston R, Bacchetti P, Hoh R, Gandhi M, Deeks SG, Scully E, Karn J.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Aug 14;115(33):E7795-E7804. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1803468115. Epub 2018 Jul 30.


The Glucocorticoid Receptor Is a Critical Regulator of HIV Latency in Human Microglial Cells.

Alvarez-Carbonell D, Ye F, Ramanath N, Dobrowolski C, Karn J.

J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2019 Mar;14(1):94-109. doi: 10.1007/s11481-018-9798-1. Epub 2018 Jul 10.


Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7)-mediated phosphorylation of the CDK9 activation loop promotes P-TEFb assembly with Tat and proviral HIV reactivation.

Mbonye U, Wang B, Gokulrangan G, Shi W, Yang S, Karn J.

J Biol Chem. 2018 Jun 29;293(26):10009-10025. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA117.001347. Epub 2018 May 9.


The KAT5-Acetyl-Histone4-Brd4 axis silences HIV-1 transcription and promotes viral latency.

Li Z, Mbonye U, Feng Z, Wang X, Gao X, Karn J, Zhou Q.

PLoS Pathog. 2018 Apr 23;14(4):e1007012. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007012. eCollection 2018 Apr.


HIV-1 infection of microglial cells in a reconstituted humanized mouse model and identification of compounds that selectively reverse HIV latency.

Llewellyn GN, Alvarez-Carbonell D, Chateau M, Karn J, Cannon PM.

J Neurovirol. 2018 Apr;24(2):192-203. doi: 10.1007/s13365-017-0604-2. Epub 2017 Dec 18.


The Molecular Basis for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Latency.

Mbonye U, Karn J.

Annu Rev Virol. 2017 Sep 29;4(1):261-285. doi: 10.1146/annurev-virology-101416-041646. Epub 2017 Jul 17. Review.


Multiple Histone Lysine Methyltransferases Are Required for the Establishment and Maintenance of HIV-1 Latency.

Nguyen K, Das B, Dobrowolski C, Karn J.

MBio. 2017 Feb 28;8(1). pii: e00133-17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00133-17.


Toll-like receptor 3 activation selectively reverses HIV latency in microglial cells.

Alvarez-Carbonell D, Garcia-Mesa Y, Milne S, Das B, Dobrowolski C, Rojas R, Karn J.

Retrovirology. 2017 Feb 6;14(1):9. doi: 10.1186/s12977-017-0335-8.


Immortalization of primary microglia: a new platform to study HIV regulation in the central nervous system.

Garcia-Mesa Y, Jay TR, Checkley MA, Luttge B, Dobrowolski C, Valadkhan S, Landreth GE, Karn J, Alvarez-Carbonell D.

J Neurovirol. 2017 Feb;23(1):47-66. doi: 10.1007/s13365-016-0499-3. Epub 2016 Nov 21.


HIV Latency-Reversing Agents Have Diverse Effects on Natural Killer Cell Function.

Garrido C, Spivak AM, Soriano-Sarabia N, Checkley MA, Barker E, Karn J, Planelles V, Margolis DM.

Front Immunol. 2016 Sep 21;7:356. eCollection 2016.


Negative Feedback Regulation of HIV-1 by Gene Editing Strategy.

Kaminski R, Chen Y, Salkind J, Bella R, Young WB, Ferrante P, Karn J, Malcolm T, Hu W, Khalili K.

Sci Rep. 2016 Aug 16;6:31527. doi: 10.1038/srep31527.


Corrigendum: Elimination of HIV-1 Genomes from Human T-lymphoid Cells by CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing.

Kaminski R, Chen Y, Fischer T, Tedaldi E, Napoli A, Zhang Y, Karn J, Hu W, Khalili K.

Sci Rep. 2016 Jul 7;6:28213. doi: 10.1038/srep28213. No abstract available.


Novel high throughput pooled shRNA screening identifies NQO1 as a potential drug target for host directed therapy for tuberculosis.

Li Q, Karim AF, Ding X, Das B, Dobrowolski C, Gibson RM, Quiñones-Mateu ME, Karn J, Rojas RE.

Sci Rep. 2016 Jun 14;6:27566. doi: 10.1038/srep27566.


Drug-Based Lead Discovery: The Novel Ablative Antiretroviral Profile of Deferiprone in HIV-1-Infected Cells and in HIV-Infected Treatment-Naive Subjects of a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Exploratory Trial.

Saxena D, Spino M, Tricta F, Connelly J, Cracchiolo BM, Hanauske AR, D'Alliessi Gandolfi D, Mathews MB, Karn J, Holland B, Park MH, Pe'ery T, Palumbo PE, Hanauske-Abel HM.

PLoS One. 2016 May 18;11(5):e0154842. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0154842. eCollection 2016.


Viruses, Mark Thy Message Well.

Ye F, Karn J.

Cell Host Microbe. 2016 May 11;19(5):568-70. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2016.04.018.


Elimination of HIV-1 Genomes from Human T-lymphoid Cells by CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing.

Kaminski R, Chen Y, Fischer T, Tedaldi E, Napoli A, Zhang Y, Karn J, Hu W, Khalili K.

Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 4;6:22555. doi: 10.1038/srep22555. Erratum in: Sci Rep. 2016 Jul 07;6:28213.


Cocaine promotes both initiation and elongation phase of HIV-1 transcription by activating NF-κB and MSK1 and inducing selective epigenetic modifications at HIV-1 LTR.

Sahu G, Farley K, El-Hage N, Aiamkitsumrit B, Fassnacht R, Kashanchi F, Ochem A, Simon GL, Karn J, Hauser KF, Tyagi M.

Virology. 2015 Sep;483:185-202. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2015.03.036. Epub 2015 May 15.


Phosphorylation of HEXIM1 at Tyr271 and Tyr274 Promotes Release of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP Complex and Enhances Proviral HIV Gene Expression.

Mbonye UR, Wang B, Gokulrangan G, Chance MR, Karn J.

Proteomics. 2015 Jun;15(12):2078-86. doi: 10.1002/pmic.201500038. Epub 2015 May 15. Erratum in: Proteomics. 2016 Aug;16(15-16):2302.


Short chain fatty acids potently induce latent HIV-1 in T-cells by activating P-TEFb and multiple histone modifications.

Das B, Dobrowolski C, Shahir AM, Feng Z, Yu X, Sha J, Bissada NF, Weinberg A, Karn J, Ye F.

Virology. 2015 Jan 1;474:65-81. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.10.033. Epub 2014 Nov 14.


A gene-specific role for the Ssu72 RNAPII CTD phosphatase in HIV-1 Tat transactivation.

Chen Y, Zhang L, Estarás C, Choi SH, Moreno L Jr, Karn J, Moresco JJ, Yates JR 3rd, Jones KA.

Genes Dev. 2014 Oct 15;28(20):2261-75. doi: 10.1101/gad.250449.114.


RNA-directed gene editing specifically eradicates latent and prevents new HIV-1 infection.

Hu W, Kaminski R, Yang F, Zhang Y, Cosentino L, Li F, Luo B, Alvarez-Carbonell D, Garcia-Mesa Y, Karn J, Mo X, Khalili K.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Aug 5;111(31):11461-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1405186111. Epub 2014 Jul 21.


The histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat (SAHA) increases the susceptibility of uninfected CD4+ T cells to HIV by increasing the kinetics and efficiency of postentry viral events.

Lucera MB, Tilton CA, Mao H, Dobrowolski C, Tabler CO, Haqqani AA, Karn J, Tilton JC.

J Virol. 2014 Sep;88(18):10803-12. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00320-14. Epub 2014 Jul 9.


Negative elongation factor is required for the maintenance of proviral latency but does not induce promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II on the HIV long terminal repeat.

Jadlowsky JK, Wong JY, Graham AC, Dobrowolski C, Devor RL, Adams MD, Fujinaga K, Karn J.

Mol Cell Biol. 2014 Jun;34(11):1911-28. doi: 10.1128/MCB.01013-13. Epub 2014 Mar 17.


Transcriptional control of HIV latency: cellular signaling pathways, epigenetics, happenstance and the hope for a cure.

Mbonye U, Karn J.

Virology. 2014 Apr;454-455:328-39. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.02.008. Epub 2014 Feb 22. Review.


Short-chain fatty acids from periodontal pathogens suppress histone deacetylases, EZH2, and SUV39H1 to promote Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus replication.

Yu X, Shahir AM, Sha J, Feng Z, Eapen B, Nithianantham S, Das B, Karn J, Weinberg A, Bissada NF, Ye F.

J Virol. 2014 Apr;88(8):4466-79. doi: 10.1128/JVI.03326-13. Epub 2014 Feb 5.


Phosphorylation of CDK9 at Ser175 enhances HIV transcription and is a marker of activated P-TEFb in CD4(+) T lymphocytes.

Mbonye UR, Gokulrangan G, Datt M, Dobrowolski C, Cooper M, Chance MR, Karn J.

PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(5):e1003338. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003338. Epub 2013 May 2.


A new BET on the control of HIV latency.

Karn J.

Cell Cycle. 2013 Feb 15;12(4):545-6. doi: 10.4161/cc.23679. Epub 2013 Jan 31. No abstract available.


Methamphetamine activates nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and induces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription in human microglial cells.

Wires ES, Alvarez D, Dobrowolski C, Wang Y, Morales M, Karn J, Harvey BK.

J Neurovirol. 2012 Oct;18(5):400-10. doi: 10.1007/s13365-012-0103-4. Epub 2012 May 22.


Transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of HIV-1 gene expression.

Karn J, Stoltzfus CM.

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2012 Feb;2(2):a006916. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a006916. Review.


Double chambered right ventricle with ventricular septal defect presenting in adulthood.

Singh NK, Karn JP, Gupt A, Senthil S.

J Assoc Physicians India. 2011 Jul;59:451-3.


Control of HIV latency by epigenetic and non-epigenetic mechanisms.

Mbonye U, Karn J.

Curr HIV Res. 2011 Dec 1;9(8):554-67.


T-cell receptor signaling enhances transcriptional elongation from latent HIV proviruses by activating P-TEFb through an ERK-dependent pathway.

Kim YK, Mbonye U, Hokello J, Karn J.

J Mol Biol. 2011 Jul 29;410(5):896-916. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2011.03.054.


Special issue: Structural and molecular biology of HIV.

Summers MF, Karn J.

J Mol Biol. 2011 Jul 22;410(4):489-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2011.05.001. No abstract available.


Epigenetic silencing of HIV-1 by the histone H3 lysine 27 methyltransferase enhancer of Zeste 2.

Friedman J, Cho WK, Chu CK, Keedy KS, Archin NM, Margolis DM, Karn J.

J Virol. 2011 Sep;85(17):9078-89. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00836-11. Epub 2011 Jun 29.


Inhibition of both HIV-1 reverse transcription and gene expression by a cyclic peptide that binds the Tat-transactivating response element (TAR) RNA.

Lalonde MS, Lobritz MA, Ratcliff A, Chamanian M, Athanassiou Z, Tyagi M, Wong J, Robinson JA, Karn J, Varani G, Arts EJ.

PLoS Pathog. 2011 May;7(5):e1002038. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002038. Epub 2011 May 19.


The molecular biology of HIV latency: breaking and restoring the Tat-dependent transcriptional circuit.

Karn J.

Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2011 Jan;6(1):4-11. doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e328340ffbb. Review.


Establishment of HIV latency in primary CD4+ cells is due to epigenetic transcriptional silencing and P-TEFb restriction.

Tyagi M, Pearson RJ, Karn J.

J Virol. 2010 Jul;84(13):6425-37. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01519-09. Epub 2010 Apr 21.


Simultaneous recognition of HIV-1 TAR RNA bulge and loop sequences by cyclic peptide mimics of Tat protein.

Davidson A, Leeper TC, Athanassiou Z, Patora-Komisarska K, Karn J, Robinson JA, Varani G.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 21;106(29):11931-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0900629106. Epub 2009 Jul 7.


Epigenetic silencing of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transcription by formation of restrictive chromatin structures at the viral long terminal repeat drives the progressive entry of HIV into latency.

Pearson R, Kim YK, Hokello J, Lassen K, Friedman J, Tyagi M, Karn J.

J Virol. 2008 Dec;82(24):12291-303. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01383-08. Epub 2008 Oct 1.


Measuring the effect of conflict on software engineering teams.

Karn JS, Cowling AJ.

Behav Res Methods. 2008 May;40(2):582-9.


CBF-1 promotes transcriptional silencing during the establishment of HIV-1 latency.

Tyagi M, Karn J.

EMBO J. 2007 Dec 12;26(24):4985-95. Epub 2007 Nov 15.


Using ethnographic methods to carry out human factors research in software engineering.

Karn JS, Cowling AJ.

Behav Res Methods. 2006 Aug;38(3):495-503.


Recruitment of TFIIH to the HIV LTR is a rate-limiting step in the emergence of HIV from latency.

Kim YK, Bourgeois CF, Pearson R, Tyagi M, West MJ, Wong J, Wu SY, Chiang CM, Karn J.

EMBO J. 2006 Aug 9;25(15):3596-604. Epub 2006 Jul 27.


Structure-based drug design targeting an inactive RNA conformation: exploiting the flexibility of HIV-1 TAR RNA.

Murchie AI, Davis B, Isel C, Afshar M, Drysdale MJ, Bower J, Potter AJ, Starkey ID, Swarbrick TM, Mirza S, Prescott CD, Vaglio P, Aboul-ela F, Karn J.

J Mol Biol. 2004 Feb 20;336(3):625-38.


Rational design of inhibitors of HIV-1 TAR RNA through the stabilisation of electrostatic "hot spots".

Davis B, Afshar M, Varani G, Murchie AI, Karn J, Lentzen G, Drysdale M, Bower J, Potter AJ, Starkey ID, Swarbrick T, Aboul-ela F.

J Mol Biol. 2004 Feb 13;336(2):343-56.


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