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PLoS One. 2019 Jan 11;14(1):e0210269. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210269. eCollection 2019.

Molecular phylogeny and diversification timing of the Nemouridae family (Insecta, Plecoptera) in the Japanese Archipelago.

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Japan.
Deparment of Zoology, Plant Protection Institute Centre for Agricultural Research, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.


The generation of the high species diversity of insects in Japan was profoundly influenced by the formation of the Japanese Archipelago. We explored the species diversification and biogeographical history of the Nemouridae Billberg, 1820 family in the Japanese Archipelago using mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA markers. We collected 49 species among four genera: Indonemoura Baumann, 1975; Protonemura Kempny, 1898; Amphinemura, Ris 1902 and Nemoura Latreille, 1796 in Japan, China, South Korea and North America. We estimated their divergence times-based on three molecular clock node calibrations-using Bayesian phylogeography approaches. Our results suggested that Japanese Archipelago formation events resulted in diversification events in the middle of the Cretaceous (<120 Ma), speciation in the Paleogene (<50 Ma) and intra-species diversification segregated into eastern and western Japan of the Fossa Magna region at late Neogene (20 Ma). The Indonemoura samples were genetically separated into two clades-that of Mainland China and that of Japan. The Japanese clade clustered with the Nemouridae species from North America, suggesting the possibility of a colonisation event prior to the formation of the Japanese Archipelago. We believe that our results enhanced the understanding both of the origin of the species and of local species distribution in the Japanese Archipelago.

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