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Science. 2018 Jun 29;360(6396). pii: eaar7711. doi: 10.1126/science.aar7711. Epub 2018 May 9.

The first horse herders and the impact of early Bronze Age steppe expansions into Asia.

Author information

1
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.
3
Department of Genetics, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EH, UK.
4
Department of Nordic Studies and Linguistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
5
Leiden University Centre for Linguistics, Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.
6
Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
7
Department of Bio and Health Informatics, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
8
Shejire DNA project, Abai ave. 150/230, 050046 Almaty, Kazakhstan.
9
Institute of Archaeology and Steppe Civilization, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, 050040, Kazakhstan.
10
S. Toraighyrov Pavlodar State University, Joint Research Center for Archeological Studies named after A.Kh. Margulan, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan.
11
Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
12
Saryarkinsky Institute of Archaeology, Buketov Karaganda State University, Karaganda. 100074, Kazakhstan.
13
Department of Anthropology, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK, USA.
14
The Institute of Forensic Sciences, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
15
Department of Genetics, Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan.
16
Department of Historical Studies, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
17
Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia.
18
Institute for the History of Material Culture, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
19
Japanese Institute of Anatolian Archaeology, Kaman, Kırşehir, Turkey.
20
Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Arts, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey.
21
Center of Omic Sciences, Islamia College, Peshawar, Pakistan.
22
Department of Archaeology, University of Exeter, Exeter, EX4 4QE, UK.
23
Department of Archeology, Hazara University, Garden Campus, Mansehra, Pakistan.
24
Directorate of Archaeology and Museums Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
25
Archaeological Museum Harappa at Archaeology Department Govt. of Punjab, Pakistan.
26
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician Lavrent'iev Ave. 17, Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia.
27
Department of History, Irkutsk State University, Karl Marx Street 1, Irkutsk 664003, Russia.
28
Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
29
Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2H4, Canada.
30
Laboratoire d'Anthropobiologie Moléculaire et d'Imagerie de Synthèse, CNRS UMR 5288, Université deToulouse, Université Paul Sabatier, 31000 Toulouse, France.
31
Departments of Integrative Biology and Statistics, University of Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, USA.
32
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK. rd109@cam.ac.uk ewillerslev@snm.ku.dk.
33
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. rd109@cam.ac.uk ewillerslev@snm.ku.dk.
34
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

The Yamnaya expansions from the western steppe into Europe and Asia during the Early Bronze Age (~3000 BCE) are believed to have brought with them Indo-European languages and possibly horse husbandry. We analyzed 74 ancient whole-genome sequences from across Inner Asia and Anatolia and show that the Botai people associated with the earliest horse husbandry derived from a hunter-gatherer population deeply diverged from the Yamnaya. Our results also suggest distinct migrations bringing West Eurasian ancestry into South Asia before and after, but not at the time of, Yamnaya culture. We find no evidence of steppe ancestry in Bronze Age Anatolia from when Indo-European languages are attested there. Thus, in contrast to Europe, Early Bronze Age Yamnaya-related migrations had limited direct genetic impact in Asia.

PMID:
29743352
PMCID:
PMC6748862
DOI:
10.1126/science.aar7711
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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