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Science. 2018 Dec 7;362(6419). pii: eaav2621. doi: 10.1126/science.aav2621. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Early human dispersals within the Americas.

Author information

1
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
Computer Science Division, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
3
Computational Biology Graduate Group, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
4
Departamento de Genética, Ecologia e Evolução, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
5
Department of Bio and Health Informatics, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
6
Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences, 7 Hasratian Street, 0014 Yerevan, Armenia.
7
Alaska Stable Isotope Facility, Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA.
8
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.
9
Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Lab for Archaeology and the History of Art, School of Archaeology, University of Oxford, 1-2 South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3TG, UK.
10
Department of Anthropology and Quaternary Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98185, USA.
11
Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe, 565 Rio Vista Drive, Fallon, NV 89406, USA.
12
Stswecem'c/Xgat'tem Band, Dog Creek, BC V0L 1J0, Canada.
13
Laboratory of Biological Anthropology, Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
14
University of Oregon Museum of Natural and Cultural History, Eugene, OR 97403, USA.
15
Departamento de Antropologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
16
Canadian Museum of History, Gatineau, Québec K1A 0M8, Canada.
17
Department of Anthropology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada.
18
Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
19
Equipo Argentino de Antropología Forense, Independencia 644-3A, Edif. EME1, Córdoba, Argentina.
20
Universidad de Magallanes, Instituto de la Patagonia, Av. Manuel Bulnes, 01890, Punta Arenas, Región de Magallanes y Antártica, Chile.
21
National Geographic Society, 1145 17th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036, USA.
22
Department of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.
23
Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
24
Museu de Arqueologia e Etnologia, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Almeida Prado, 1466 Butantã, 05508-070 São Paulo, Brazil.
25
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Palaeoanthropology and Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.
26
Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, Kansas State University, 1603 Old Claflin Place, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA.
27
Unidade de Xenética, Departamento de Anatomía Patolóxica e Ciencias Forenses, Instituto de Ciencias Forenses, Facultade de Medicina, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela (USC), Spain.
28
GenPoB Research Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IDIS), Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago (SERGAS), Galicia, Spain.
29
Department of Anthropology, School of Integrative Biology, Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.
30
U.S. National Park Service, 4175 Geist Road, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA.
31
LACICOR - Conservation Science Laboratory, CECOR - Center for Conservation and Restoration of Cultural Properties, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
32
Department of Computational Biology, University of Lausanne, Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics, Lausanne, Switzerland.
33
Department of Statistics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
34
Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
35
Computer Science Division, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. ewillerslev@snm.ku.dk dmeltzer@smu.edu yss@berkeley.edu.
36
Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, San Francisco, CA 94158, USA.
37
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark. ewillerslev@snm.ku.dk dmeltzer@smu.edu yss@berkeley.edu.
38
Department of Anthropology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX 75275, USA.
39
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.
40
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK.

Abstract

Studies of the peopling of the Americas have focused on the timing and number of initial migrations. Less attention has been paid to the subsequent spread of people within the Americas. We sequenced 15 ancient human genomes spanning from Alaska to Patagonia; six are ≥10,000 years old (up to ~18× coverage). All are most closely related to Native Americans, including those from an Ancient Beringian individual and two morphologically distinct "Paleoamericans." We found evidence of rapid dispersal and early diversification that included previously unknown groups as people moved south. This resulted in multiple independent, geographically uneven migrations, including one that provides clues of a Late Pleistocene Australasian genetic signal, as well as a later Mesoamerican-related expansion. These led to complex and dynamic population histories from North to South America.

PMID:
30409807
DOI:
10.1126/science.aav2621

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