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Haematologica. 2019 Mar;104(3):599-608. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2018.195669. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Factor VIII cross-matches to the human proteome reduce the predicted inhibitor risk in missense mutation hemophilia A.

Author information

1
Blizard Institute, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, QMUL, London.
2
The Royal London Hospital Haemophilia Centre, Barts Health NHS Trust, London.
3
Department of Biological Sciences and Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck, University of London, UK.
4
Department of Biological Sciences and Institute of Structural and Molecular Biology, Birkbeck, University of London, UK a.shepherd@mail.cryst.bbk.ac.uk.

Abstract

Single missense mutations in the F8 gene encoding the coagulation protein factor VIII give rise predominantly to non-severe hemophilia A. Despite only a single amino acid sequence difference between the replacement, therapeutic factor VIII and the patient's endogenous factor VIII, therapeutic factor VIII may still be perceived as foreign by the recipient's immune system and trigger an immune response (inhibitor). Inhibitor formation is a life-long risk for patients with non-severe hemophilia A treated with therapeutic factor VIII, but remains difficult to predict. The aim of this study was to understand whether fortuitous, primary sequence cross-matches between therapeutic factor VIII and proteins in the human proteome are the reason why certain F8 mutations are not associated with inhibitor formation. We predicted which therapeutic factor VIII differences are potentially perceived as foreign by helper T cells - a necessary precursor to inhibitor development - and then scanned potentially immunogenic peptides against more than 100,000 proteins in the proteome. As there are hundreds of disease-causing F8 missense mutations and the human leukocyte antigen gene complex governing peptide presentation to helper T cells is highly polymorphic, these calculations pose a huge combinatorial challenge that we addressed computationally. We found that cross-matches between therapeutic factor VIII and the human proteome are commonplace and have a profound impact on the predicted risk of inhibitor development. Our results emphasize the importance of knowing both the F8 missense mutation and the human leukocyte antigen alleles of a patient with missense mutation hemophilia A if his underlying risk of inhibitor development is to be estimated.

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