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Clin Sci (Lond). 2017 Jun 1;131(12):1215-1224. doi: 10.1042/CS20170009.

Monocyte subtypes and the CCR2 chemokine receptor in cardiovascular disease.

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Santo Amaro University-Health Sciences Post Graduation, São Paulo - SP, Brazil
Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division, São Paulo - SP, Brazil.
Santo Amaro University-Health Sciences Post Graduation, São Paulo - SP, Brazil.
Federal University of Sao Paulo, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, São Paulo - SP, Brazil.
Albert Einstein Israeli Hospital, São Paulo - SP, Brazil.
Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik II-Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Bonn - North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.


Monocytes circulate in the blood and migrate to inflammatory tissues, but their functions can be either detrimental or beneficial, depending on their phenotypes. In humans, classical monocytes are inflammatory cluster of differentiation (CD)14++CD16-CCR2++ cells originated from the bone marrow or spleen reservoirs and comprise ≥92% of monocytes. Intermediate monocytes (CD14++CD16+CCR2+) are involved in the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines [such as interleukin (IL)-10], reactive oxygen species (ROS), and proinflammatory mediators [such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β). Nonclassical monocytes (CD14+CD16++CCR2-) are patrolling cells involved in tissue repair and debris removal from the vasculature. Many studies in both humans and animals have shown the importance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and its receptor [chemokine receptor of MCP-1 (CCR2)] in pathologies, such as atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (MI). This review presents the importance of these monocyte subsets in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and sheds light on new strategies for the blocking of the MCP-1/CCR2 axis as a therapeutic goal for treating vascular disorders.


atherosclerosis; chemokine receptor CCR2; monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; monocyte subtypes; myocardial infarction

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