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J Dent Educ. 2019 Apr;83(4):398-406. doi: 10.21815/JDE.019.049. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Effectiveness of iPad Technology in Preclinical Dental Laboratory Courses.

Author information

1
Michele L. Kirkup, DDS, is Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Indiana University School of Dentistry; Brooke N. Adams, DDS, is Clinical Assistant Professor, Cariology, Operative Dentistry, and Public Health Department, Indiana University School of Dentistry; Paul E. Reifeis, DDS, JD, MSD, is Clinical Assistant Professor, Cariology, Operative Dentistry, and Public Health Department, Indiana University School of Dentistry; Jeni L. Heselbarth, DDS, was a dental student at Indiana University School of Dentistry at the time of this study; and Lisa H. Willis, DDS, MSD, is Clinical Assistant Professor, Cariology, Operative Dentistry, and Public Health Department, Indiana University School of Dentistry. mkirkup@iu.edu.
2
Michele L. Kirkup, DDS, is Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Prosthodontics, Indiana University School of Dentistry; Brooke N. Adams, DDS, is Clinical Assistant Professor, Cariology, Operative Dentistry, and Public Health Department, Indiana University School of Dentistry; Paul E. Reifeis, DDS, JD, MSD, is Clinical Assistant Professor, Cariology, Operative Dentistry, and Public Health Department, Indiana University School of Dentistry; Jeni L. Heselbarth, DDS, was a dental student at Indiana University School of Dentistry at the time of this study; and Lisa H. Willis, DDS, MSD, is Clinical Assistant Professor, Cariology, Operative Dentistry, and Public Health Department, Indiana University School of Dentistry.

Abstract

Dental educators should consider alternative modalities of instruction when experiencing difficulties conveying feedback to students. The aim of this study was to determine if integrating iPad technology as a visual learning tool would enhance the exchange of assessment information and improve academic performance in Indiana University School of Dentistry's preclinical curriculum. In 2016, the first-year Tooth Morphology (TM) and second-year Fixed Prosthodontics (Fixed) courses implemented a project using iPad images that allowed instructors to annotate acceptable and deficient areas of students' tooth wax-ups and preparations. In the two courses, all students (TM n=106 and Fixed n=105) and instructors (TM n=21 and Fixed n=17) were given pre-intervention surveys to report their perceived effectiveness of verbal feedback and were given post-intervention surveys to rate their experiences with iPad image feedback. Response rates for students in the two courses on the pre surveys were TM 87.7% and Fixed 85.7% and on the post surveys were TM 26.4% and Fixed 76.2%. Response rates for instructors on the pre surveys were TM 52.4% and Fixed 82.4% and on the post surveys were TM 76.2% and Fixed 76.5%. The results showed that a majority of both groups preferred the combination of verbal and iPad image feedback: 53% of responding students in TM and 51% in Fixed, and 75% of instructors in TM and 77% in Fixed. In the TM course, responding instructors had a statistically significantly higher agreement than students that feedback with iPad images was superior to verbal feedback alone (p=0.008). Furthermore, a multi-year analysis of TM practical examination grades found statistically significant lower change scores for the first and second exams in 2014 and 2015 compared to the 2016 scores when the iPad intervention occurred. These results suggest that verbal feedback combined with iPad images resulted in an enhanced exchange of information and increased student grades, particularly in the first-year dental curriculum.

KEYWORDS:

dental education; educational technology; iPad; instructional materials/methods; preclinical skills

PMID:
30745347
DOI:
10.21815/JDE.019.049
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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