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Pharmaceutically modified subtilisins withstand acidic conditions and effectively degrade gluten in vivo.

Darwish G, Helmerhorst EJ, Schuppan D, Oppenheim FG, Wei G.

Sci Rep. 2019 May 16;9(1):7505. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-43837-9.


A Role for Salivary Peptides in the Innate Defense Against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

Brown JW, Badahdah A, Iticovici M, Vickers TJ, Alvarado DM, Helmerhorst EJ, Oppenheim FG, Mills JC, Ciorba MA, Fleckenstein JM, Bullitt E.

J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 11;217(9):1435-1441. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy032.


The association between coeliac disease and periodontitis: Results from NHANES 2009-2012.

Spinell T, DeMayo F, Cato M, Thai A, Helmerhorst EJ, Green PHR, Lebwohl B, Demmer RT.

J Clin Periodontol. 2018 Mar;45(3):303-310. doi: 10.1111/jcpe.12856. Epub 2018 Jan 11.


The complexity of oral physiology and its impact on salivary diagnostics.

Helmerhorst EJ, Dawes C, Oppenheim FG.

Oral Dis. 2018 Apr;24(3):363-371. doi: 10.1111/odi.12780. Epub 2017 Oct 25.


Salivary Gluten Degradation and Oral Microbial Profiles in Healthy Individuals and Celiac Disease Patients.

Tian N, Faller L, Leffler DA, Kelly CP, Hansen J, Bosch JA, Wei G, Paster BJ, Schuppan D, Helmerhorst EJ.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017 Mar 2;83(6). pii: e03330-16. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03330-16. Print 2017 Mar 15.


Late responses to adenoviral-mediated transfer of the aquaporin-1 gene for radiation-induced salivary hypofunction.

Alevizos I, Zheng C, Cotrim AP, Liu S, McCullagh L, Billings ME, Goldsmith CM, Tandon M, Helmerhorst EJ, Catalán MA, Danielides SJ, Perez P, Nikolov NP, Chiorini JA, Melvin JE, Oppenheim FG, Illei GG, Baum BJ.

Gene Ther. 2017 Mar;24(3):176-186. doi: 10.1038/gt.2016.87. Epub 2016 Dec 20.


Saliva and Serum Protein Exchange at the Tooth Enamel Surface.

Heller D, Helmerhorst EJ, Oppenheim FG.

J Dent Res. 2017 Apr;96(4):437-443. doi: 10.1177/0022034516680771. Epub 2016 Nov 25.


Identification of food-grade subtilisins as gluten-degrading enzymes to treat celiac disease.

Wei G, Tian N, Siezen R, Schuppan D, Helmerhorst EJ.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016 Sep 1;311(3):G571-80. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00185.2016. Epub 2016 Jul 28.


Microbial Diversity in the Early In Vivo-Formed Dental Biofilm.

Heller D, Helmerhorst EJ, Gower AC, Siqueira WL, Paster BJ, Oppenheim FG.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016 Jan 8;82(6):1881-8. doi: 10.1128/AEM.03984-15.


Despite sequence homologies to gluten, salivary proline-rich proteins do not elicit immune responses central to the pathogenesis of celiac disease.

Tian N, Leffler DA, Kelly CP, Hansen J, Marietta EV, Murray JA, Schuppan D, Helmerhorst EJ.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2015 Dec 1;309(11):G910-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00157.2015. Epub 2015 Oct 1.


Experimental Strategy to Discover Microbes with Gluten-degrading Enzyme Activities.

Helmerhorst EJ, Wei G.

Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng. 2014 May 5;9112. pii: 91120D.


Identification of Pseudolysin (lasB) as an Aciduric Gluten-Degrading Enzyme with High Therapeutic Potential for Celiac Disease.

Wei G, Tian N, Valery AC, Zhong Y, Schuppan D, Helmerhorst EJ.

Am J Gastroenterol. 2015 Jun;110(6):899-908. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2015.97. Epub 2015 Apr 21.


Salivary proline-rich proteins and gluten: Do structural similarities suggest a role in celiac disease?

Tian N, Messana I, Leffler DA, Kelly CP, Hansen J, Cabras T, D'Alessandro A, Schuppan D, Castagnola M, Helmerhorst EJ.

Proteomics Clin Appl. 2015 Oct;9(9-10):953-64. doi: 10.1002/prca.201400170. Epub 2015 Apr 24.


Effect of Rothia mucilaginosa enzymes on gliadin (gluten) structure, deamidation, and immunogenic epitopes relevant to celiac disease.

Tian N, Wei G, Schuppan D, Helmerhorst EJ.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014 Oct 15;307(8):G769-76. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00144.2014. Epub 2014 Aug 21.


Uncovering the molecular networks in periodontitis.

Trindade F, Oppenheim FG, Helmerhorst EJ, Amado F, Gomes PS, Vitorino R.

Proteomics Clin Appl. 2014 Oct;8(9-10):748-61. doi: 10.1002/prca.201400028. Epub 2014 Jul 14. Review.


High-resolution high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry characterization of a new isoform of human salivary acidic proline-rich proteins named Roma-Boston Ser₂₂ (Phos) → Phe variant.

Iavarone F, D'Alessandro A, Tian N, Cabras T, Messana I, Helmerhorst EJ, Oppenheim FG, Castagnola M.

J Sep Sci. 2014 Jul;37(14):1896-902. doi: 10.1002/jssc.201400227. Epub 2014 May 23.


Nanoscale adhesion forces between enamel pellicle proteins and hydroxyapatite.

Vukosavljevic D, Hutter JL, Helmerhorst EJ, Xiao Y, Custodio W, Zaidan FC, Oppenheim FG, Siqueira WL.

J Dent Res. 2014 May;93(5):514-9. doi: 10.1177/0022034514526599. Epub 2014 Mar 3.


The cultivable human oral gluten-degrading microbiome and its potential implications in coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity.

Fernandez-Feo M, Wei G, Blumenkranz G, Dewhirst FE, Schuppan D, Oppenheim FG, Helmerhorst EJ.

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013 Sep;19(9):E386-94. doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12249. Epub 2013 May 28.


The diagnostic potential of salivary protease activities in periodontal health and disease.

Thomadaki K, Bosch J, Oppenheim F, Helmerhorst E.

Oral Dis. 2013 Nov;19(8):781-8. doi: 10.1111/odi.12069. Epub 2013 Feb 4.


Anti-candidal activity of genetically engineered histatin variants with multiple functional domains.

Oppenheim FG, Helmerhorst EJ, Lendenmann U, Offner GD.

PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51479. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051479. Epub 2012 Dec 12.


Identification of Rothia bacteria as gluten-degrading natural colonizers of the upper gastro-intestinal tract.

Zamakhchari M, Wei G, Dewhirst F, Lee J, Schuppan D, Oppenheim FG, Helmerhorst EJ.

PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e24455. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024455. Epub 2011 Sep 21.


Whole-saliva proteolysis and its impact on salivary diagnostics.

Thomadaki K, Helmerhorst EJ, Tian N, Sun X, Siqueira WL, Walt DR, Oppenheim FG.

J Dent Res. 2011 Nov;90(11):1325-30. doi: 10.1177/0022034511420721. Epub 2011 Sep 13.


Influence of histatin 5 on Candida albicans mitochondrial protein expression assessed by quantitative mass spectrometry.

Komatsu T, Salih E, Helmerhorst EJ, Offner GD, Oppenheim FG.

J Proteome Res. 2011 Feb 4;10(2):646-55. doi: 10.1021/pr100861k. Epub 2010 Dec 6.


Discovery of a novel and rich source of gluten-degrading microbial enzymes in the oral cavity.

Helmerhorst EJ, Zamakhchari M, Schuppan D, Oppenheim FG.

PLoS One. 2010 Oct 11;5(10):e13264. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013264.


The antifungal activity of human parotid secretion is species-specific.

Hanasab H, Jammal D, Oppenheim FG, Helmerhorst EJ.

Med Mycol. 2011 Feb;49(2):218-21. doi: 10.3109/13693786.2010.512299. Epub 2010 Aug 31.


Mass spectrometric identification of key proteolytic cleavage sites in statherin affecting mineral homeostasis and bacterial binding domains.

Helmerhorst EJ, Traboulsi G, Salih E, Oppenheim FG.

J Proteome Res. 2010 Oct 1;9(10):5413-21. doi: 10.1021/pr100653r.


Large-scale phosphoproteome of human whole saliva using disulfide-thiol interchange covalent chromatography and mass spectrometry.

Salih E, Siqueira WL, Helmerhorst EJ, Oppenheim FG.

Anal Biochem. 2010 Dec 1;407(1):19-33. doi: 10.1016/j.ab.2010.07.012. Epub 2010 Jul 24.


Evidence of intact histatins in the in vivo acquired enamel pellicle.

Siqueira WL, Margolis HC, Helmerhorst EJ, Mendes FM, Oppenheim FG.

J Dent Res. 2010 Jun;89(6):626-30. doi: 10.1177/0022034510363384. Epub 2010 Mar 29.


Activity-based mass spectrometric characterization of proteases and inhibitors in human saliva.

Sun X, Salih E, Oppenheim FG, Helmerhorst EJ.

Proteomics Clin Appl. 2009 Jul 1;3(7):810-820.


A general enhancement of autonomic and cortisol responses during social evaluative threat.

Bosch JA, de Geus EJ, Carroll D, Goedhart AD, Anane LA, van Zanten JJ, Helmerhorst EJ, Edwards KM.

Psychosom Med. 2009 Oct;71(8):877-85. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3181baef05. Epub 2009 Sep 24.


Kinetics of histatin proteolysis in whole saliva and the effect on bioactive domains with metal-binding, antifungal, and wound-healing properties.

Sun X, Salih E, Oppenheim FG, Helmerhorst EJ.

FASEB J. 2009 Aug;23(8):2691-701. doi: 10.1096/fj.09-131045. Epub 2009 Apr 1.


Fiber-optic microsphere-based antibody array for the analysis of inflammatory cytokines in saliva.

Blicharz TM, Siqueira WL, Helmerhorst EJ, Oppenheim FG, Wexler PJ, Little FF, Walt DR.

Anal Chem. 2009 Mar 15;81(6):2106-14. doi: 10.1021/ac802181j.


Concentration and fate of histatins and acidic proline-rich proteins in the oral environment.

Campese M, Sun X, Bosch JA, Oppenheim FG, Helmerhorst EJ.

Arch Oral Biol. 2009 Apr;54(4):345-53. doi: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2008.11.010. Epub 2009 Jan 20.


Multiple components contribute to ability of saliva to inhibit influenza viruses.

White MR, Helmerhorst EJ, Ligtenberg A, Karpel M, Tecle T, Siqueira WL, Oppenheim FG, Hartshorn KL.

Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2009 Feb;24(1):18-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-302X.2008.00468.x.


Use of colorimetric test strips for monitoring the effect of hemodialysis on salivary nitrite and uric acid in patients with end-stage renal disease: a proof of principle.

Blicharz TM, Rissin DM, Bowden M, Hayman RB, DiCesare C, Bhatia JS, Grand-Pierre N, Siqueira WL, Helmerhorst EJ, Loscalzo J, Oppenheim FG, Walt DR.

Clin Chem. 2008 Sep;54(9):1473-80. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2008.105320. Epub 2008 Aug 1.


Identification of Lys-Pro-Gln as a novel cleavage site specificity of saliva-associated proteases.

Helmerhorst EJ, Sun X, Salih E, Oppenheim FG.

J Biol Chem. 2008 Jul 18;283(29):19957-66. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M708282200. Epub 2008 May 7.


Proteome of human minor salivary gland secretion.

Siqueira WL, Salih E, Wan DL, Helmerhorst EJ, Oppenheim FG.

J Dent Res. 2008 May;87(5):445-50.


Saliva: a dynamic proteome.

Helmerhorst EJ, Oppenheim FG.

J Dent Res. 2007 Aug;86(8):680-93. Review.


Identification of protein components in in vivo human acquired enamel pellicle using LC-ESI-MS/MS.

Siqueira WL, Zhang W, Helmerhorst EJ, Gygi SP, Oppenheim FG.

J Proteome Res. 2007 Jun;6(6):2152-60. Epub 2007 Apr 21.


Acquired enamel pellicle and its potential role in oral diagnostics.

Siqueira WL, Helmerhorst EJ, Zhang W, Salih E, Oppenheim FG.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Mar;1098:504-9. Review.


Whole saliva proteolysis: wealth of information for diagnostic exploitation.

Helmerhorst EJ.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Mar;1098:454-60.


Microsensor arrays for saliva diagnostics.

Walt DR, Blicharz TM, Hayman RB, Rissin DM, Bowden M, Siqueira WL, Helmerhorst EJ, Grand-Pierre N, Oppenheim FG, Bhatia JS, Little FF, Brody JS.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Mar;1098:389-400.


Salivary proteome and its genetic polymorphisms.

Oppenheim FG, Salih E, Siqueira WL, Zhang W, Helmerhorst EJ.

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Mar;1098:22-50. Epub 2007 Feb 15. Review.


Oral fluid proteolytic effects on histatin 5 structure and function.

Helmerhorst EJ, Alagl AS, Siqueira WL, Oppenheim FG.

Arch Oral Biol. 2006 Dec;51(12):1061-70. Epub 2006 Aug 9.


Salivary histatins in human deep posterior lingual glands (of von Ebner).

Piludu M, Lantini MS, Cossu M, Piras M, Oppenheim FG, Helmerhorst EJ, Siqueira W, Hand AR.

Arch Oral Biol. 2006 Nov;51(11):967-73. Epub 2006 Jul 21.


Roles of cellular respiration, CgCDR1, and CgCDR2 in Candida glabrata resistance to histatin 5.

Helmerhorst EJ, Venuleo C, Sanglard D, Oppenheim FG.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Mar;50(3):1100-3.


The concomitant expression and availability of conventional and alternative, cyanide-insensitive, respiratory pathways in Candida albicans.

Helmerhorst EJ, Stan M, Murphy MP, Sherman F, Oppenheim FG.

Mitochondrion. 2005 Jun;5(3):200-11.


Candida glabrata is unusual with respect to its resistance to cationic antifungal proteins.

Helmerhorst EJ, Venuleo C, Beri A, Oppenheim FG.

Yeast. 2005 Jul 15;22(9):705-14.


Histatin-derived peptides: potential agents to treat localised infections.

Rothstein DM, Helmerhorst EJ, Spacciapoli P, Oppenheim FG, Friden P.

Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2002 May;7(1):47-59.


A hypomorphic allele of the first N-glycosylation gene, ALG7, causes mitochondrial defects in yeast.

Mendelsohn RD, Helmerhorst EJ, Cipollo JF, Kukuruzinska MA.

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005 May 25;1723(1-3):33-44. Epub 2005 Feb 17.


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