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Neoreviews. 2020 Mar;21(3):e150-e156. doi: 10.1542/neo.21-3-e150.

Perspectives: The Flipped Classroom in Graduate Medical Education.

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Department of Pediatrics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.
Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Division of Neonatology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA.


Andragogy, the art and science of helping adults learn, is a learner-centric conceptual framework that considers adult learner characteristics and their motivations for learning. These motivations range from internal will, readiness to learn, and relevance to one's own life. The flipped classroom, an increasingly popular educational method for both learners and educators, aligns with an andragogical approach as it uses classroom time for application of knowledge and critical thinking rather than for a passive didactic lecture. The growing body of educational research demonstrating increased performance and knowledge retention using this method has led to its incorporation into graduate medical education materials, including the National Neonatology Curriculum. In this article, the authors review how the flipped classroom, an active educational method that embraces the tenets of adult learning theory, may be more effective in graduate medical education compared with traditional lecture.


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