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A national quality improvement programme to improve survival after emergency abdominal surgery: the EPOCH stepped-wedge cluster RCT.

Peden CJ, Stephens T, Martin G, Kahan BC, Thomson A, Everingham K, Kocman D, Lourtie J, Drake S, Girling A, Lilford R, Rivett K, Wells D, Mahajan R, Holt P, Yang F, Walker S, Richardson G, Kerry S, Anderson I, Murray D, Cromwell D, Phull M, Grocott MPW, Bion J, Pearse RM; the EPOCH trial group .

Southampton (UK): NIHR Journals Library; 2019 Sep.


The impact of varying cluster size in cross-sectional stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials.

Martin JT, Hemming K, Girling A.

BMC Med Res Methodol. 2019 Jun 14;19(1):123. doi: 10.1186/s12874-019-0760-6.


Pick 'n' mix teaching: a solution to learner engagement?

Girling A, Pierce E.

Br J Nurs. 2019 Jan 24;28(2):126-127. doi: 10.12968/bjon.2019.28.2.126. No abstract available.


Reporting of stepped wedge cluster randomised trials: extension of the CONSORT 2010 statement with explanation and elaboration.

Hemming K, Taljaard M, McKenzie JE, Hooper R, Copas A, Thompson JA, Dixon-Woods M, Aldcroft A, Doussau A, Grayling M, Kristunas C, Goldstein CE, Campbell MK, Girling A, Eldridge S, Campbell MJ, Lilford RJ, Weijer C, Forbes AB, Grimshaw JM.

BMJ. 2018 Nov 9;363:k1614. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k1614. No abstract available.


Sicker patients account for the weekend mortality effect among adult emergency admissions to a large hospital trust.

Sun J, Girling AJ, Aldridge C, Evison F, Beet C, Boyal A, Rudge G, Lilford RJ, Bion J.

BMJ Qual Saf. 2019 Mar;28(3):223-230. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2018-008219. Epub 2018 Oct 9.


Cluster randomised trials: useful for interventions delivered to groups: Study design: cluster randomised trials.

Hemming K, Girling A.

BJOG. 2019 Feb;126(3):340. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.15195. Epub 2018 Jun 19. No abstract available.


Improving outcomes after pediatric cardiac arrest - the ICU-Resuscitation Project: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Reeder RW, Girling A, Wolfe H, Holubkov R, Berg RA, Naim MY, Meert KL, Tilford B, Carcillo JA, Hamilton M, Bochkoris M, Hall M, Maa T, Yates AR, Sapru A, Kelly R, Federman M, Michael Dean J, McQuillen PS, Franzon D, Pollack MM, Siems A, Diddle J, Wessel DL, Mourani PM, Zebuhr C, Bishop R, Friess S, Burns C, Viteri S, Hehir DA, Whitney Coleman R, Jenkins TL, Notterman DA, Tamburro RF, Sutton RM; Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network (CPCCRN).

Trials. 2018 Apr 3;19(1):213. doi: 10.1186/s13063-018-2590-y.


Impact of a commercial order entry system on prescribing errors amenable to computerised decision support in the hospital setting: a prospective pre-post study.

Pontefract SK, Hodson J, Slee A, Shah S, Girling AJ, Williams R, Sheikh A, Coleman JJ.

BMJ Qual Saf. 2018 Sep;27(9):725-736. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2017-007135. Epub 2018 Mar 23.


Protocol for the health economic evaluation of increasing the weekend specialist to patient ratio in hospitals in England.

Watson SI, Chen YF, Bion JF, Aldridge CP, Girling A, Lilford RJ; HiSLAC Collaboration.

BMJ Open. 2018 Feb 23;8(2):e015561. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-015561.


Two-epoch cross-sectional case record review protocol comparing quality of care of hospital emergency admissions at weekends versus weekdays.

Bion J, Aldridge CP, Girling A, Rudge G, Beet C, Evans T, Temple RM, Roseveare C, Clancy M, Boyal A, Tarrant C, Sutton E, Sun J, Rees P, Mannion R, Chen YF, Watson SI, Lilford R; HiSLAC collaboration.

BMJ Open. 2017 Dec 22;7(12):e018747. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-018747.


Erratum to: Sample size calculations for cluster randomised controlled trials with a fixed number of clusters.

Hemming K, Girling AJ, Sitch AJ, Marsh J, Lilford RJ.

BMC Med Res Methodol. 2017 Jan 19;17(1):8. doi: 10.1186/s12874-017-0292-x. No abstract available.


Intra-cluster and inter-period correlation coefficients for cross-sectional cluster randomised controlled trials for type-2 diabetes in UK primary care.

Martin J, Girling A, Nirantharakumar K, Ryan R, Marshall T, Hemming K.

Trials. 2016 Aug 15;17:402. doi: 10.1186/s13063-016-1532-9.


Accuracy of classification of invasive lobular carcinoma on needle core biopsy of the breast.

Naidoo K, Beardsley B, Carder PJ, Deb R, Fish D, Girling A, Hales S, Howe M, Wastall LM, Lane S, Lee AH, Philippidou M, Quinn C, Stephenson T, Pinder SE.

J Clin Pathol. 2016 Dec;69(12):1122-1123. doi: 10.1136/jclinpath-2016-203886. Epub 2016 Aug 10.


Reviewing deaths in British and US hospitals: a study of two scales for assessing preventability.

Manaseki-Holland S, Lilford RJ, Bishop JRB, Girling AJ, Chen YF, Chilton PJ, Hofer TP; UK Case Note Review Group.

BMJ Qual Saf. 2017 May;26(5):408-416. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2015-004849. Epub 2016 Jun 22.


Weekend specialist intensity and admission mortality in acute hospital trusts in England: a cross-sectional study.

Aldridge C, Bion J, Boyal A, Chen YF, Clancy M, Evans T, Girling A, Lord J, Mannion R, Rees P, Roseveare C, Rudge G, Sun J, Tarrant C, Temple M, Watson S, Lilford R; HiSLAC Collaborative.

Lancet. 2016 Jul 9;388(10040):178-86. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30442-1. Epub 2016 May 10.


Erratum to: Researching Complex Interventions in Health: The State of the Art.

Craig P, Rahm-Hallberg I, Britten N, Borglin G, Meyer G, Köpke S, Noyes J, Chandler J, Levati S, Sales A, Thabane L, Giangregorio L, Feeley N, Cossette S, Taylor R, Hill J, Richards DA, Kuyken W, von Essen L, Williams A, Hemming K, Lilford R, Girling A, Taljaard M, Dimairo M, Petticrew M, Baird J, Moore G, Odendaal W, Atkins S, Lutge E, Leon N, Lewin S, Payne K, vanAchterberg T, Sermeus W, Pitt M, Monks T.

BMC Health Serv Res. 2016 May 13;16(1):181. No abstract available.


Systematic review finds major deficiencies in sample size methodology and reporting for stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials.

Martin J, Taljaard M, Girling A, Hemming K.

BMJ Open. 2016 Feb 4;6(2):e010166. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010166. Review.


Statistical efficiency and optimal design for stepped cluster studies under linear mixed effects models.

Girling AJ, Hemming K.

Stat Med. 2016 Jun 15;35(13):2149-66. doi: 10.1002/sim.6850. Epub 2016 Jan 7.



Girling A, Lilford R, Cole A, Young T.

Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2015 Jan;31(5):331-8. doi: 10.1017/S0266462315000501. Epub 2015 Dec 23.


The impact of electronic prescribing systems on pharmacists' time and workflow: protocol for a time-and-motion study in English NHS hospitals.

Schofield B, Cresswel K, Westbrook J, Slee A, Girling A, Shah S, Coleman J, Sheikh A.

BMJ Open. 2015 Oct 26;5(10):e008785. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008785.


Does smoking cessation result in improved mental health? A comparison of regression modelling and propensity score matching.

Taylor G, Girling A, McNeill A, Aveyard P.

BMJ Open. 2015 Oct 21;5(10):e008774. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008774.


Oil refinery experience with the assessment of refinery effluents and receiving waters using biologically based methods.

Comber MH, Girling A, den Haan KH, Whale G.

Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2015 Oct;11(4):653-65. doi: 10.1002/ieam.1639. Epub 2015 May 28.


The stepped wedge cluster randomised trial: rationale, design, analysis, and reporting.

Hemming K, Haines TP, Chilton PJ, Girling AJ, Lilford RJ.

BMJ. 2015 Feb 6;350:h391. doi: 10.1136/bmj.h391. Review. No abstract available.


A multistudy analysis investigating systematic differences in cardiovascular trial results between Europe and Asia.

Hartley LC, Girling AJ, Bowater RJ, Lilford RJ.

J Epidemiol Community Health. 2015 Apr;69(4):397-404. doi: 10.1136/jech-2013-203646. Epub 2014 Dec 5. Review.


Stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trials: a generic framework including parallel and multiple-level designs.

Hemming K, Lilford R, Girling AJ.

Stat Med. 2015 Jan 30;34(2):181-96. doi: 10.1002/sim.6325. Epub 2014 Oct 24.


Meta-analysis of randomized phase II trials to inform subsequent phase III decisions.

Burke DL, Billingham LJ, Girling AJ, Riley RD.

Trials. 2014 Sep 3;15:346. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-15-346.


Protocol for evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of ePrescribing systems and candidate prototype for other related health information technologies.

Lilford RJ, Girling AJ, Sheikh A, Coleman JJ, Chilton PJ, Burn SL, Jenkinson DJ, Blake L, Hemming K.

BMC Health Serv Res. 2014 Jul 19;14:314. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-14-314.


Are the UK systems of innovation and evaluation of medical devices compatible? The role of NICE's Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme (MTEP).

Chapman AM, Taylor CA, Girling AJ.

Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2014 Aug;12(4):347-57. doi: 10.1007/s40258-014-0104-y.


The effectiveness of service delivery initiatives at improving patients' waiting times in clinical radiology departments: a systematic review.

Olisemeke B, Chen YF, Hemming K, Girling A.

J Digit Imaging. 2014 Dec;27(6):751-78. doi: 10.1007/s10278-014-9706-z. Review.


Translating cell-based regenerative medicines from research to successful products: challenges and solutions.

Bayon Y, Vertès AA, Ronfard V, Egloff M, Snykers S, Salinas GF, Thomas R, Girling A, Lilford R, Clermont G, Kemp P.

Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2014 Aug;20(4):246-56. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEB.2013.0727. Epub 2014 Jun 12.


Change in mental health after smoking cessation: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Taylor G, McNeill A, Girling A, Farley A, Lindson-Hawley N, Aveyard P.

BMJ. 2014 Feb 13;348:g1151. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g1151. Review. Erratum in: BMJ. 2014;348:g2216.


Effects of physical activity on the development and progression of microvascular complications in type 1 diabetes: retrospective analysis of the DCCT study.

Makura CB, Nirantharakumar K, Girling AJ, Saravanan P, Narendran P.

BMC Endocr Disord. 2013 Oct 2;13:37. doi: 10.1186/1472-6823-13-37.


The efficiency of stepped wedge vs. cluster randomized trials: stepped wedge studies do not always require a smaller sample size.

Hemming K, Girling A.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2013 Dec;66(12):1427-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2013.07.007. Epub 2013 Sep 10. No abstract available.


The combined influence of distance and neighbourhood deprivation on Emergency Department attendance in a large English population: a retrospective database study.

Rudge GM, Mohammed MA, Fillingham SC, Girling A, Sidhu K, Stevens AJ.

PLoS One. 2013 Jul 16;8(7):e67943. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067943. Print 2013.


Stepped wedge cluster randomized trials are efficient and provide a method of evaluation without which some interventions would not be evaluated.

Hemming K, Girling A, Martin J, Bond SJ.

J Clin Epidemiol. 2013 Sep;66(9):1058-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2012.12.020. Epub 2013 Jul 9. No abstract available.


Birmingham and Lambeth Liver Evaluation Testing Strategies (BALLETS): a prospective cohort study.

Lilford RJ, Bentham L, Girling A, Litchfield I, Lancashire R, Armstrong D, Jones R, Marteau T, Neuberger J, Gill P, Cramb R, Olliff S, Arnold D, Khan K, Armstrong MJ, Houlihan DD, Newsome PN, Chilton PJ, Moons K, Altman D.

Health Technol Assess. 2013 Jul;17(28):i-xiv, 1-307. doi: 10.3310/hta17280.


What is the best strategy for investigating abnormal liver function tests in primary care? Implications from a prospective study.

Lilford RJ, Bentham LM, Armstrong MJ, Neuberger J, Girling AJ.

BMJ Open. 2013 Jun 20;3(6). pii: e003099. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003099.


Index blood tests and national early warning scores within 24 hours of emergency admission can predict the risk of in-hospital mortality: a model development and validation study.

Mohammed MA, Rudge G, Watson D, Wood G, Smith GB, Prytherch DR, Girling A, Stevens A.

PLoS One. 2013 May 29;8(5):e64340. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064340. Print 2013.


A germline mosaic BRCA1 exon deletion in a woman with bilateral basal-like breast cancer.

Delon I, Taylor A, Molenda A, Drummond J, Oakhill K, Girling A, Liu H, Whittaker J, Treacy R, Tischkowitz M.

Clin Genet. 2013 Sep;84(3):297-9. doi: 10.1111/cge.12057. Epub 2012 Dec 6. No abstract available.


Case-mix adjusted hospital mortality is a poor proxy for preventable mortality: a modelling study.

Girling AJ, Hofer TP, Wu J, Chilton PJ, Nicholl JP, Mohammed MA, Lilford RJ.

BMJ Qual Saf. 2012 Dec;21(12):1052-6. doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2012-001202. Epub 2012 Oct 15.


Bayesian meta-analysis on medical devices: application to implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

Youn JH, Lord J, Hemming K, Girling A, Buxton M.

Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2012 Apr;28(2):115-24. doi: 10.1017/S0266462312000037.


A statistical framework for quantifying clinical equipoise for individual cases during randomized controlled surgical trials.

Parsons NR, Kulikov Y, Girling A, Griffin D.

Trials. 2011 Dec 13;12:258. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-12-258.


Pricing of medical devices under coverage uncertainty--a modelling approach.

Girling AJ, Lilford RJ, Young TP.

Health Econ. 2012 Dec;21(12):1502-7. doi: 10.1002/hec.1807. Epub 2011 Oct 20.


Sample size calculations for cluster randomised controlled trials with a fixed number of clusters.

Hemming K, Girling AJ, Sitch AJ, Marsh J, Lilford RJ.

BMC Med Res Methodol. 2011 Jun 30;11:102. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-11-102. Erratum in: BMC Med Res Methodol. 2017 Jan 19;17 (1):8.


Multiple component patient safety intervention in English hospitals: controlled evaluation of second phase.

Benning A, Dixon-Woods M, Nwulu U, Ghaleb M, Dawson J, Barber N, Franklin BD, Girling A, Hemming K, Carmalt M, Rudge G, Naicker T, Kotecha A, Derrington MC, Lilford R.

BMJ. 2011 Feb 3;342:d199. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d199.


Large scale organisational intervention to improve patient safety in four UK hospitals: mixed method evaluation.

Benning A, Ghaleb M, Suokas A, Dixon-Woods M, Dawson J, Barber N, Franklin BD, Girling A, Hemming K, Carmalt M, Rudge G, Naicker T, Nwulu U, Choudhury S, Lilford R.

BMJ. 2011 Feb 3;342:d195. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d195.


Integrating health economics into the product development cycle: a case study of absorbable pins for treating hallux valgus.

Vallejo-Torres L, Steuten L, Parkinson B, Girling AJ, Buxton MJ.

Med Decis Making. 2011 Jul-Aug;31(4):596-610. doi: 10.1177/0272989X10388041. Epub 2010 Dec 2.


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