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Science. 2019 Mar 15;363(6432):1230-1234. doi: 10.1126/science.aav4040.

The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years.

Olalde I1, Mallick S2,3,4, Patterson N3, Rohland N2, Villalba-Mouco V5,6, Silva M7, Dulias K7, Edwards CJ7, Gandini F7, Pala M7, Soares P8, Ferrando-Bernal M9, Adamski N2,4, Broomandkhoshbacht N2,4, Cheronet O10, Culleton BJ11, Fernandes D10,12, Lawson AM2,4, Mah M2,3,4, Oppenheimer J2,4, Stewardson K2,4, Zhang Z2, Jiménez Arenas JM13,14,15, Toro Moyano IJ16, Salazar-García DC17, Castanyer P18, Santos M18, Tremoleda J18, Lozano M19,20, García Borja P21, Fernández-Eraso J22, Mujika-Alustiza JA22, Barroso C23, Bermúdez FJ23, Viguera Mínguez E24, Burch J25, Coromina N25, Vivó D25, Cebrià A26, Fullola JM26, García-Puchol O27, Morales JI26, Oms FX26, Majó T28, Vergès JM19,20, Díaz-Carvajal A29, Ollich-Castanyer I29, López-Cachero FJ26, Silva AM30,31,32, Alonso-Fernández C33, Delibes de Castro G34, Jiménez Echevarría J33, Moreno-Márquez A35,36, Pascual Berlanga G, Ramos-García P37, Ramos-Muñoz J35, Vijande Vila E35, Aguilella Arzo G38, Esparza Arroyo Á39, Lillios KT40, Mack J41, Velasco-Vázquez J42, Waterman A43, Benítez de Lugo Enrich L44,45, Benito Sánchez M46, Agustí B47,48, Codina F48, de Prado G48, Estalrrich A49, Fernández Flores Á50, Finlayson C51,52,53,54, Finlayson G51,53,54, Finlayson S51,55, Giles-Guzmán F51, Rosas A56, Barciela González V57,58, García Atiénzar G57,58, Hernández Pérez MS57,58, Llanos A59, Carrión Marco Y60, Collado Beneyto I61, López-Serrano D62, Sanz Tormo M, Valera AC63, Blasco C44, Liesau C44, Ríos P44, Daura J26, de Pedro Michó MJ64, Diez-Castillo AA65, Flores Fernández R, Francès Farré J66, Garrido-Pena R44, Gonçalves VS31, Guerra-Doce E34, Herrero-Corral AM67, Juan-Cabanilles J68, López-Reyes D69, McClure SB70, Merino Pérez M71, Oliver Foix A38, Sanz Borràs M26, Sousa AC31, Vidal Encinas JM72, Kennett DJ11,70, Richards MB7, Werner Alt K73,74, Haak W5,75, Pinhasi R10, Lalueza-Fox C76, Reich D1,3,4.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. inigo_olalde@hms.harvard.edu carles.lalueza@upf.edu reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu.
2
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
3
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA.
4
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.
5
Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.
6
Departamento de Ciencias de la Antigüedad, Grupo Primeros Pobladores del Valle del Ebro (PPVE), Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Ambientales (IUCA), Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
7
Department of Biological and Geographical Sciences, School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.
8
Centre of Molecular and Environmental Biology, Department of Biology, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.
9
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain.
10
Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
11
Department of Anthropology and Institutes of Energy and the Environment, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.
12
Research Center for Anthropology and Health, Department of Life Science, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
13
Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
14
Instituto Universitario de la Paz y los Conflictos, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain.
15
Department of Anthropology - Anthropologisches Institut and Museum, Universität Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
16
Museo Arqueológico y Etnológico de Granada, Granada, Spain.
17
Departamento de Geografía, Prehistoria y Arqueología, Grupo de Investigación en Prehistoria, (UPV-EHU)/IKERBASQUE-Basque Foundation for Science, Vitoria, Spain.
18
Museu d'Arqueologia de Catalunya-Empúries, L'Escala, Spain.
19
Institut Català de Paleoecologia Humana i Evolució Social (IPHES), Tarragona, Spain.
20
Àrea de Prehistòria, Universitat Rovira i Virgili (URV), Tarragona, Spain.
21
Departamento de Prehistoria e Historia Antigua, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Valencia, Spain.
22
Departamento de Geografía, Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad del País Vasco, Vitoria, Spain.
23
Fundación Instituto de Investigación de Prehistoria y Evolución Humana (FIPEH), Lucena, Spain.
24
Área de Genética, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, Málaga, Spain.
25
Institut de Recerca Històrica, Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain.
26
SERP, Departament d'Història i Arqueologia, Facultat de Geografia i Història, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
27
PREMEDOC Research Group, Departament de Prehistòria, Arqueologia i Historia Antiga, Universitat de València, València, Spain.
28
Archaeom. Departament de Prehistòria, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.
29
Universitat de Barcelona-GRAMP/Museu Arqueològic de l'Esquerda, Roda de Ter, Spain.
30
Laboratory of Prehistory, Research Center for Anthropology and Health, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
31
UNIARQ, Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
32
CEF, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
33
Cronos S.C. Arqueología y Patrimonio, Burgos, Spain.
34
Departamento de Prehistoria, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Valladolid, Valladolid, Spain.
35
Departamento de Historia, Geografía y Filosofía, Universidad de Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain.
36
Departamento de Geografía, Historia y Humanidades, Universidad de Almería, Almería, Spain.
37
School of Dentistry, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
38
Servicio de Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Prehistóricas de la Diputación de Castellón, Castelló de la Plana, Spain.
39
GIR PrehUSAL, Departamento de Prehistoria, Historia Antigua y Arqueología, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain.
40
Department of Anthropology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
41
Office of the State Archaeologist, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
42
Departamento de Ciencias Históricas, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas, Spain.
43
Mt. Mercy University, Cedar Rapids, IA, USA.
44
Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
45
Departamento de Prehistoria y Arqueología, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid, Spain.
46
Departamento de Medicina Legal, Psiquiatría y Anatomía Patológica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
47
INSITU S.C.P., Centelles, Spain.
48
Museu d'Arqueologia de Catalunya-Ullastret, Ullastret, Spain.
49
Instituto Internacional de Investigaciones Prehistóricas de Cantabria IIIPC (Universidad de Cantabria-Gobierno de Cantabria-Santander), Santander, Spain.
50
Arqueología y Gestión S.L.L., Fuentes de Andalucia, Spain.
51
The Gibraltar National Museum, Gibraltar.
52
Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
53
School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, UK.
54
Institute of Life and Earth Sciences, University of Gibraltar, Gibraltar.
55
Department of Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK.
56
Paleoanthropology Group, Department of Paleobiology, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (MNCN)-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Madrid, Spain.
57
Departamento de Prehistoria, Arqueología e Historia Antigua, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad de Alicante, San Vicente del Raspeig, Spain.
58
Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Arqueología y Patrimonio Histórico (INAPH), San Vicente del Raspeig, Spain.
59
Instituto Alavés de Arqueología, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.
60
Departament de Prehistòria, Arqueologia i Historia Antiga, Universitat de València, València, Spain.
61
Museu Arqueológic Vicent Casanova, Bocairent, Spain.
62
Estrats, Treballs d'Arqueologia SL, El Campello, Spain.
63
Era - Arqueologia, Oeiras, Portugal.
64
Museu de Prehistòria de València, València, Spain.
65
GRAM Research Group, Departament de Prehistòria, Arqueologia i Historia Antiga, Universitat de València, València, Spain.
66
Museu i Poblat Ibèric de Ca n'Oliver, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.
67
Departamento de Prehistoria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
68
Museu de Prehistoria/SIP, Diputació de València, València, Spain.
69
Arqueovitis sccl., Avinyonet del Penedès, Spain.
70
Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.
71
Unitat d'Antropologia Física, Departament de Biologia Animal, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
72
Junta de Castilla y León, Servicio de Cultura de León, León, Spain.
73
Center of Natural and Cultural Human History, Danube Private University, Krems, Austria.
74
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Integrative Prehistory and Archaeological Science, Basel University, Basel, Switzerland.
75
School of Biological Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia.
76
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain. inigo_olalde@hms.harvard.edu carles.lalueza@upf.edu reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu.

Abstract

We assembled genome-wide data from 271 ancient Iberians, of whom 176 are from the largely unsampled period after 2000 BCE, thereby providing a high-resolution time transect of the Iberian Peninsula. We document high genetic substructure between northwestern and southeastern hunter-gatherers before the spread of farming. We reveal sporadic contacts between Iberia and North Africa by ~2500 BCE and, by ~2000 BCE, the replacement of 40% of Iberia's ancestry and nearly 100% of its Y-chromosomes by people with Steppe ancestry. We show that, in the Iron Age, Steppe ancestry had spread not only into Indo-European-speaking regions but also into non-Indo-European-speaking ones, and we reveal that present-day Basques are best described as a typical Iron Age population without the admixture events that later affected the rest of Iberia. Additionally, we document how, beginning at least in the Roman period, the ancestry of the peninsula was transformed by gene flow from North Africa and the eastern Mediterranean.

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