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Cancer Res. 2002 Dec 1;62(23):6981-9.

Functional genomic comparison of lineage-related human bladder cancer cell lines with differing tumorigenic and metastatic potentials by spectral karyotyping, comparative genomic hybridization, and a novel method of positional expression profiling.

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Department of Molecular Physiology and Biological Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.


We have recently characterized T24T, an invasive and metastatic variant of the T24 human bladder cell line, resulting in a model for bladder cancer progression. To gain additional insight into the repertoire of genetic changes that may be responsible for the invasive and metastatic phenotype, we used spectral karyotyping (SKY) in combination with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in these cells. To assess the functional significance of the genetic differences found between the two cell lines, we have developed a positional expression profiling (PEP) method for comparing gene expression data obtained from oligonucleotide microarrays based upon chromosomal position. Using SKY and CGH, we were able to define the genetic changes in the cell lines, and in addition, resolve the identity of all marker chromosomes from our initial karyotyping and G-band analysis. PEP analysis revealed important similarities and differences when compared with the cytogenetic data, allowing insights of how genomic structural changes affect gene expression on a regional scale. The shape of the expression profiles for chromosomes 8, 12, and X correlated well with the numerical imbalances revealed by CGH and SKY, whereas regions like 10q, gained in T24T compared with T24, was not associated with changes in gene expression. Furthermore, we have shown that 12p, a region of agreement between CGH and PEP harbors RhoGDI2, a candidate gene, the expression of which inversely correlates with bladder tumor progression, demonstrating the usefulness of this multimodal approach in identifying promising genetic changes that may be responsible for the invasive phenotype.

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