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B cells from young and old mice switch isotypes with equal frequencies after ex vivo stimulation.

Russell Knode LM, Park HS, Maul RW, Gearhart PJ.

Cell Immunol. 2019 Aug 19:103966. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2019.103966. [Epub ahead of print]


DNA Breaks in Ig V Regions Are Predominantly Single Stranded and Are Generated by UNG and MSH6 DNA Repair Pathways.

Zanotti KJ, Maul RW, Yang W, Gearhart PJ.

J Immunol. 2019 Mar 1;202(5):1573-1581. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1801183. Epub 2019 Jan 21.


Complex sex-biased antibody responses: estrogen receptors bind estrogen response elements centered within immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancers.

Jones BG, Sealy RE, Penkert RR, Surman SL, Maul RW, Neale G, Xu B, Gearhart PJ, Hurwitz JL.

Int Immunol. 2019 Mar 5;31(3):141-156. doi: 10.1093/intimm/dxy074.


Naive B Cells with High-Avidity Germline-Encoded Antigen Receptors Produce Persistent IgM+ and Transient IgG+ Memory B Cells.

Pape KA, Maul RW, Dileepan T, Paustian AS, Gearhart PJ, Jenkins MK.

Immunity. 2018 Jun 19;48(6):1135-1143.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2018.04.019. Epub 2018 Jun 5.


JH6 downstream intronic sequence is dispensable for RNA polymerase II accumulation and somatic hypermutation of the variable gene in Ramos cells.

Castiblanco DP, Norton DD, Maul RW, Gearhart PJ.

Mol Immunol. 2018 May;97:101-108. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2018.03.031. Epub 2018 Apr 4.


Co-Stimulation of BCR and Toll-Like Receptor 7 Increases Somatic Hypermutation, Memory B Cell Formation, and Secondary Antibody Response to Protein Antigen.

Castiblanco DP, Maul RW, Russell Knode LM, Gearhart PJ.

Front Immunol. 2017 Dec 19;8:1833. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2017.01833. eCollection 2017.


The Reign of Antibodies: A Celebration of and Tribute to Michael Potter and His Homogeneous Immunoglobulin Workshops.

Gearhart PJ, Mock BA, Casellas R, Cancro MP.

J Immunol. 2018 Jan 1;200(1):23-26. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1701516. No abstract available.


Signals that drive T-bet expression in B cells.

Myles A, Gearhart PJ, Cancro MP.

Cell Immunol. 2017 Nov;321:3-7. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2017.09.004. Epub 2017 Sep 11.


Age-Associated B Cells Express a Diverse Repertoire of VH and Vκ Genes with Somatic Hypermutation.

Russell Knode LM, Naradikian MS, Myles A, Scholz JL, Hao Y, Liu D, Ford ML, Tobias JW, Cancro MP, Gearhart PJ.

J Immunol. 2017 Mar 1;198(5):1921-1927. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1601106. Epub 2017 Jan 16.


R-Loop Depletion by Over-expressed RNase H1 in Mouse B Cells Increases Activation-Induced Deaminase Access to the Transcribed Strand without Altering Frequency of Isotype Switching.

Maul RW, Chon H, Sakhuja K, Cerritelli SM, Gugliotti LA, Gearhart PJ, Crouch RJ.

J Mol Biol. 2017 Oct 27;429(21):3255-3263. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2016.12.020. Epub 2017 Jan 6.


Binding of estrogen receptors to switch sites and regulatory elements in the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus of activated B cells suggests a direct influence of estrogen on antibody expression.

Jones BG, Penkert RR, Xu B, Fan Y, Neale G, Gearhart PJ, Hurwitz JL.

Mol Immunol. 2016 Sep;77:97-102. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2016.07.015. Epub 2016 Aug 3.


DNA polymerase ι functions in the generation of tandem mutations during somatic hypermutation of antibody genes.

Maul RW, MacCarthy T, Frank EG, Donigan KA, McLenigan MP, Yang W, Saribasak H, Huston DE, Lange SS, Woodgate R, Gearhart PJ.

J Exp Med. 2016 Aug 22;213(9):1675-83. doi: 10.1084/jem.20151227. Epub 2016 Jul 25.


F10 cytotoxicity via topoisomerase I cleavage complex repair consistent with a unique mechanism for thymineless death.

Gmeiner WH, Gearhart PJ, Pommier Y, Nakamura J.

Future Oncol. 2016 Oct;12(19):2183-8. doi: 10.2217/fon-2016-0127. Epub 2016 Jun 22. Review. No abstract available.


Hotspots for Vitamin-Steroid-Thyroid Hormone Response Elements Within Switch Regions of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Loci Predict a Direct Influence of Vitamins and Hormones on B Cell Class Switch Recombination.

Hurwitz JL, Penkert RR, Xu B, Fan Y, Partridge JF, Maul RW, Gearhart PJ.

Viral Immunol. 2016 Mar;29(2):132-6. doi: 10.1089/vim.2015.0104. Epub 2016 Jan 7.


Antibody diversification caused by disrupted mismatch repair and promiscuous DNA polymerases.

Zanotti KJ, Gearhart PJ.

DNA Repair (Amst). 2016 Feb;38:110-116. doi: 10.1016/j.dnarep.2015.11.011. Epub 2015 Dec 2. Review.


Exceptional Antibodies Produced by Successive Immunizations.

Gearhart PJ, Castiblanco DP, Russell Knode LM.

PLoS Biol. 2015 Dec 7;13(12):e1002321. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002321. eCollection 2015 Dec.


ATM deficiency promotes development of murine B-cell lymphomas that resemble diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in humans.

Hathcock KS, Padilla-Nash HM, Camps J, Shin DM, Triner D, Shaffer AL 3rd, Maul RW, Steinberg SM, Gearhart PJ, Staudt LM, Morse HC 3rd, Ried T, Hodes RJ.

Blood. 2015 Nov 12;126(20):2291-301. doi: 10.1182/blood-2015-06-654749. Epub 2015 Sep 23.


Topoisomerase I deficiency causes RNA polymerase II accumulation and increases AID abundance in immunoglobulin variable genes.

Maul RW, Saribasak H, Cao Z, Gearhart PJ.

DNA Repair (Amst). 2015 Jun;30:46-52. doi: 10.1016/j.dnarep.2015.03.004. Epub 2015 Mar 18.


Defective repair of uracil causes telomere defects in mouse hematopoietic cells.

Vallabhaneni H, Zhou F, Maul RW, Sarkar J, Yin J, Lei M, Harrington L, Gearhart PJ, Liu Y.

J Biol Chem. 2015 Feb 27;290(9):5502-11. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.607101. Epub 2015 Jan 8.


ATAD5 deficiency decreases B cell division and Igh recombination.

Zanotti KJ, Maul RW, Castiblanco DP, Yang W, Choi YJ, Fox JT, Myung K, Saribasak H, Gearhart PJ.

J Immunol. 2015 Jan 1;194(1):35-42. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1401158. Epub 2014 Nov 17.


Spt5 accumulation at variable genes distinguishes somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells from ex vivo-activated cells.

Maul RW, Cao Z, Venkataraman L, Giorgetti CA, Press JL, Denizot Y, Du H, Sen R, Gearhart PJ.

J Exp Med. 2014 Oct 20;211(11):2297-306. doi: 10.1084/jem.20131512. Epub 2014 Oct 6.


Refining the Neuberger model: Uracil processing by activated B cells.

Maul RW, Gearhart PJ.

Eur J Immunol. 2014 Jul;44(7):1913-6. doi: 10.1002/eji.201444813. Epub 2014 Jun 30.


A tribute to Michael S. Neuberger.

Gearhart PJ, Kelsoe G.

J Clin Invest. 2014 Jan;124(1):3-5. doi: 10.1172/JCI74366. Epub 2014 Jan 2. No abstract available.


Does DNA repair occur during somatic hypermutation?

Saribasak H, Gearhart PJ.

Semin Immunol. 2012 Aug;24(4):287-92. doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2012.05.002. Epub 2012 Jun 22. Review.


DNA polymerase ζ generates tandem mutations in immunoglobulin variable regions.

Saribasak H, Maul RW, Cao Z, Yang WW, Schenten D, Kracker S, Gearhart PJ.

J Exp Med. 2012 Jun 4;209(6):1075-81. doi: 10.1084/jem.20112234. Epub 2012 May 21.


XRCC1 suppresses somatic hypermutation and promotes alternative nonhomologous end joining in Igh genes.

Saribasak H, Maul RW, Cao Z, McClure RL, Yang W, McNeill DR, Wilson DM 3rd, Gearhart PJ.

J Exp Med. 2011 Oct 24;208(11):2209-16. doi: 10.1084/jem.20111135. Epub 2011 Oct 3.


Role of TLR signaling in Francisella tularensis-LPS-induced, antibody-mediated protection against Francisella tularensis challenge.

Cole LE, Mann BJ, Shirey KA, Richard K, Yang Y, Gearhart PJ, Chesko KL, Viscardi RM, Vogel SN.

J Leukoc Biol. 2011 Oct;90(4):787-97. doi: 10.1189/jlb.0111014. Epub 2011 Jul 12.


Different B cell populations mediate early and late memory during an endogenous immune response.

Pape KA, Taylor JJ, Maul RW, Gearhart PJ, Jenkins MK.

Science. 2011 Mar 4;331(6021):1203-7. doi: 10.1126/science.1201730. Epub 2011 Feb 10.


Uracil residues dependent on the deaminase AID in immunoglobulin gene variable and switch regions.

Maul RW, Saribasak H, Martomo SA, McClure RL, Yang W, Vaisman A, Gramlich HS, Schatz DG, Woodgate R, Wilson DM 3rd, Gearhart PJ.

Nat Immunol. 2011 Jan;12(1):70-6. doi: 10.1038/ni.1970. Epub 2010 Dec 12.


Local sequence targeting in the AID/APOBEC family differentially impacts retroviral restriction and antibody diversification.

Kohli RM, Maul RW, Guminski AF, McClure RL, Gajula KS, Saribasak H, McMahon MA, Siliciano RF, Gearhart PJ, Stivers JT.

J Biol Chem. 2010 Dec 24;285(52):40956-64. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M110.177402. Epub 2010 Oct 6.


AID and somatic hypermutation.

Maul RW, Gearhart PJ.

Adv Immunol. 2010;105:159-91. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2776(10)05006-6. Review.


Controlling somatic hypermutation in immunoglobulin variable and switch regions.

Maul RW, Gearhart PJ.

Immunol Res. 2010 Jul;47(1-3):113-22. doi: 10.1007/s12026-009-8142-5. Review.


Response to "Mutation frequency vs. mutation patterns: a comparison of the results in spleen and Peyer's patches"

Gearhart PJ.

DNA Repair (Amst). 2008 Sep 1;7(9):1411-1412. Epub 2008 Jul 9. No abstract available.


A portable hot spot recognition loop transfers sequence preferences from APOBEC family members to activation-induced cytidine deaminase.

Kohli RM, Abrams SR, Gajula KS, Maul RW, Gearhart PJ, Stivers JT.

J Biol Chem. 2009 Aug 21;284(34):22898-904. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.025536. Epub 2009 Jun 26.


Immunoglobulin switch mu sequence causes RNA polymerase II accumulation and reduces dA hypermutation.

Rajagopal D, Maul RW, Ghosh A, Chakraborty T, Khamlichi AA, Sen R, Gearhart PJ.

J Exp Med. 2009 Jun 8;206(6):1237-44. doi: 10.1084/jem.20082514. Epub 2009 May 11.


Women, autoimmunity, and cancer: a dangerous liaison between estrogen and activation-induced deaminase?

Maul RW, Gearhart PJ.

J Exp Med. 2009 Jan 16;206(1):11-3. doi: 10.1084/jem.20080086. Epub 2009 Jan 12.


Hijacked DNA repair proteins and unchained DNA polymerases.

Saribasak H, Rajagopal D, Maul RW, Gearhart PJ.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009 Mar 12;364(1517):605-11. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0188. Review.



Gearhart PJ, Lindahl T, Neuberger MS.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009 Mar 12;364(1517):561-2. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.0236. No abstract available.


Regulating antibody diversity: taming a mutagen.

Gearhart PJ, Sen R.

Mol Cell. 2008 Sep 5;31(5):615-6. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2008.08.016.


Reevaluation of the role of DNA polymerase theta in somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes.

Martomo SA, Saribasak H, Yokoi M, Hanaoka F, Gearhart PJ.

DNA Repair (Amst). 2008 Sep 1;7(9):1603-8. doi: 10.1016/j.dnarep.2008.04.002. Epub 2008 May 16.


Nucleotide excision repair in an immunoglobulin variable gene is less efficient than in a housekeeping gene.

Alrefai RH, Winter DB, Bohr VA, Gearhart PJ.

Mol Immunol. 2007 Apr;44(11):2800-5. Epub 2007 Mar 1.


Antibody wars: extreme diversity.

Gearhart PJ.

J Immunol. 2006 Oct 1;177(7):4235-6. Review. No abstract available.


Somatic hypermutation: subverted DNA repair.

Martomo SA, Gearhart PJ.

Curr Opin Immunol. 2006 Jun;18(3):243-8. Epub 2006 Apr 17. Review.


Normal hypermutation in antibody genes from congenic mice defective for DNA polymerase iota.

Martomo SA, Yang WW, Vaisman A, Maas A, Yokoi M, Hoeijmakers JH, Hanaoka F, Woodgate R, Gearhart PJ.

DNA Repair (Amst). 2006 Mar 7;5(3):392-8. Epub 2006 Jan 26.


DNA polymerases and somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes.

Seki M, Gearhart PJ, Wood RD.

EMBO Rep. 2005 Dec;6(12):1143-8. Review.


DNA polymerase eta contributes to strand bias of mutations of A versus T in immunoglobulin genes.

Mayorov VI, Rogozin IB, Adkison LR, Gearhart PJ.

J Immunol. 2005 Jun 15;174(12):7781-6.


Different mutation signatures in DNA polymerase eta- and MSH6-deficient mice suggest separate roles in antibody diversification.

Martomo SA, Yang WW, Wersto RP, Ohkumo T, Kondo Y, Yokoi M, Masutani C, Hanaoka F, Gearhart PJ.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jun 14;102(24):8656-61. Epub 2005 Jun 6.


MSH2-MSH6 stimulates DNA polymerase eta, suggesting a role for A:T mutations in antibody genes.

Wilson TM, Vaisman A, Martomo SA, Sullivan P, Lan L, Hanaoka F, Yasui A, Woodgate R, Gearhart PJ.

J Exp Med. 2005 Feb 21;201(4):637-45. Epub 2005 Feb 14.

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