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Genetics. 2020 Feb;214(2):355-367. doi: 10.1534/genetics.119.302938. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Tissue-Specific DNA Replication Defects in Drosophila melanogaster Caused by a Meier-Gorlin Syndrome Mutation in Orc4.

Author information

1
Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53706.
2
Department of Biomolecular Chemistry, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 cfox@wisc.edu mharrison3@wisc.edu.

Abstract

Meier-Gorlin syndrome is a rare recessive disorder characterized by a number of distinct tissue-specific developmental defects. Genes encoding members of the origin recognition complex (ORC) and additional proteins essential for DNA replication (CDC6, CDT1, GMNN, CDC45, MCM5, and DONSON) are mutated in individuals diagnosed with MGS. The essential role of ORC is to license origins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle, but ORC has also been implicated in several nonreplicative functions. Because of its essential role in DNA replication, ORC is required for every cell division during development. Thus, it is unclear how the Meier-Gorlin syndrome mutations in genes encoding ORC lead to the tissue-specific defects associated with the disease. To begin to address these issues, we used Cas9-mediated genome engineering to generate a Drosophila melanogaster model of individuals carrying a specific Meier-Gorlin syndrome mutation in ORC4 along with control strains. Together these strains provide the first metazoan model for an MGS mutation in which the mutation was engineered at the endogenous locus along with precisely defined control strains. Flies homozygous for the engineered MGS allele reach adulthood, but with several tissue-specific defects. Genetic analysis revealed that this Orc4 allele was a hypomorph. Mutant females were sterile, and phenotypic analyses suggested that defects in DNA replication was an underlying cause. By leveraging the well-studied Drosophila system, we provide evidence that a disease-causing mutation in Orc4 disrupts DNA replication, and we propose that in individuals with MGS defects arise preferentially in tissues with a high-replication demand.

KEYWORDS:

DNA Replication; Disease Model; Drosophila; Meier-Gorlin syndrome

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