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Items: 1 to 50 of 149


Δ8 -Tetrahydrocannabivarin has potent anti-nicotine effects in multiple rodent models of nicotine dependence.

Xi ZX, Muldoon P, Wang XF, Bi GH, Damaj MI, Lichtman AH, Pertwee RG, Gardner EL.

Br J Pharmacol. 2019 Aug 27. doi: 10.1111/bph.14844. [Epub ahead of print]


Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor mechanisms underlie cannabis reward and aversion in rats.

Spiller KJ, Bi GH, He Y, Galaj E, Gardner EL, Xi ZX.

Br J Pharmacol. 2019 May;176(9):1268-1281. doi: 10.1111/bph.14625. Epub 2019 Apr 3.


Dopamine D3R antagonist VK4-116 attenuates oxycodone self-administration and reinstatement without compromising its antinociceptive effects.

You ZB, Bi GH, Galaj E, Kumar V, Cao J, Gadiano A, Rais R, Slusher BS, Gardner EL, Xi ZX, Newman AH.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2019 Jul;44(8):1415-1424. doi: 10.1038/s41386-018-0284-5. Epub 2018 Nov 27.


Cocaine and cocaine expectancy increase growth hormone, ghrelin, GLP-1, IGF-1, adiponectin, and corticosterone while decreasing leptin, insulin, GIP, and prolactin.

You ZB, Wang B, Gardner EL, Wise RA.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2019 Jan;176:53-56. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2018.11.001. Epub 2018 Nov 7.


Deletion of the type 2 metabotropic glutamate receptor increases heroin abuse vulnerability in transgenic rats.

Gao JT, Jordan CJ, Bi GH, He Y, Yang HJ, Gardner EL, Xi ZX.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2018 Dec;43(13):2615-2626. doi: 10.1038/s41386-018-0231-5. Epub 2018 Oct 3.


PPARα/CB1 receptor dual ligands as a novel therapy for alcohol use disorder: Evaluation of a novel oleic acid conjugate in preclinical rat models.

Alen F, Decara J, Brunori G, You ZB, Bühler KM, López-Moreno JA, Cippitelli A, Pavon FJ, Suárez J, Gardner EL, de la Torre R, Ciccocioppo R, Serrano A, Rodríguez de Fonseca F.

Biochem Pharmacol. 2018 Nov;157:235-243. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2018.09.008. Epub 2018 Sep 6.


Genetic deletion of the dopamine D3 receptor increases vulnerability to heroin in mice.

Zhan J, Jordan CJ, Bi GH, He XH, Gardner EL, Wang YL, Xi ZX.

Neuropharmacology. 2018 Oct;141:11-20. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.08.016. Epub 2018 Aug 20.


CB2 receptor antibody signal specificity: correlations with the use of partial CB2-knockout mice and anti-rat CB2 receptor antibodies.

Zhang HY, Shen H, Jordan CJ, Liu QR, Gardner EL, Bonci A, Xi ZX.

Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2019 Mar;40(3):398-409. doi: 10.1038/s41401-018-0037-3. Epub 2018 Jul 2.


Cannabinoid CB1 receptor neutral antagonist AM4113 inhibits heroin self-administration without depressive side effects in rats.

He XH, Jordan CJ, Vemuri K, Bi GH, Zhan J, Gardner EL, Makriyannis A, Wang YL, Xi ZX.

Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2019 Mar;40(3):365-373. doi: 10.1038/s41401-018-0059-x. Epub 2018 Jul 2.


Selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonism significantly attenuates stress-induced immobility in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

Rice OV, Ashby CR Jr, Dixon C, Laurenzo W, Hayden J, Song R, Li J, Tiwari AK, Gardner EL.

Synapse. 2018 Aug;72(8):e22035. doi: 10.1002/syn.22035. Epub 2018 Jun 7.


mGluR5 antagonism inhibits cocaine reinforcement and relapse by elevation of extracellular glutamate in the nucleus accumbens via a CB1 receptor mechanism.

Li X, Peng XQ, Jordan CJ, Li J, Bi GH, He Y, Yang HJ, Zhang HY, Gardner EL, Xi ZX.

Sci Rep. 2018 Feb 27;8(1):3686. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22087-1.


Development and initial characterization of a novel ghrelin receptor CRISPR/Cas9 knockout wistar rat model.

Zallar LJ, Tunstall BJ, Richie CT, Zhang YJ, You ZB, Gardner EL, Heilig M, Pickel J, Koob GF, Vendruscolo LF, Harvey BK, Leggio L.

Int J Obes (Lond). 2019 Feb;43(2):344-354. doi: 10.1038/s41366-018-0013-5. Epub 2018 Jan 30.


Cannabinoid type 2 receptors in dopamine neurons inhibits psychomotor behaviors, alters anxiety, depression and alcohol preference.

Liu QR, Canseco-Alba A, Zhang HY, Tagliaferro P, Chung M, Dennis E, Sanabria B, Schanz N, Escosteguy-Neto JC, Ishiguro H, Lin Z, Sgro S, Leonard CM, Santos-Junior JG, Gardner EL, Egan JM, Lee JW, Xi ZX, Onaivi ES.

Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 12;7(1):17410. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17796-y.


CB1 Receptor Activation on VgluT2-Expressing Glutamatergic Neurons Underlies Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC)-Induced Aversive Effects in Mice.

Han X, He Y, Bi GH, Zhang HY, Song R, Liu QR, Egan JM, Gardner EL, Li J, Xi ZX.

Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 26;7(1):12315. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-12399-z.


The novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonists/partial agonists CAB2-015 and BAK4-54 inhibit oxycodone-taking and oxycodone-seeking behavior in rats.

You ZB, Gao JT, Bi GH, He Y, Boateng C, Cao J, Gardner EL, Newman AH, Xi ZX.

Neuropharmacology. 2017 Nov;126:190-199. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.09.007. Epub 2017 Sep 6.


The Novel Modafinil Analog, JJC8-016, as a Potential Cocaine Abuse Pharmacotherapeutic.

Zhang HY, Bi GH, Yang HJ, He Y, Xue G, Cao J, Tanda G, Gardner EL, Newman AH, Xi ZX.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Aug;42(9):1871-1883. doi: 10.1038/npp.2017.41. Epub 2017 Mar 7.


Cannabidiol: a potential treatment for post Ebola syndrome?

Reznik SE, Gardner EL, Ashby CR Jr.

Int J Infect Dis. 2016 Nov;52:74-76. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2016.09.020. Epub 2016 Sep 26.


CTDP-32476: A Promising Agonist Therapy for Treatment of Cocaine Addiction.

Xi ZX, Song R, Li X, Lu GY, Peng XQ, He Y, Bi GH, Sheng SP, Yang HJ, Zhang H, Li J, Froimowitz M, Gardner EL.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2017 Feb;42(3):682-694. doi: 10.1038/npp.2016.155. Epub 2016 Aug 18.


Examining the role of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors in Pavlovian conditioned approach behaviors.

Fraser KM, Haight JL, Gardner EL, Flagel SB.

Behav Brain Res. 2016 May 15;305:87-99. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2016.02.022. Epub 2016 Feb 22.


Expression of functional cannabinoid CB2 receptor in VTA dopamine neurons in rats.

Zhang HY, Gao M, Shen H, Bi GH, Yang HJ, Liu QR, Wu J, Gardner EL, Bonci A, Xi ZX.

Addict Biol. 2017 May;22(3):752-765. doi: 10.1111/adb.12367. Epub 2016 Feb 1.


The selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist SB-277011A significantly accelerates extinction to environmental cues associated with cocaine-induced place preference in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

Ashby CR Jr, Rice OV, Heidbreder CA, Gardner EL.

Synapse. 2015 Oct;69(10):512-4. doi: 10.1002/syn.21839. Epub 2015 Jul 14. No abstract available.


The selective dopamine D₃ receptor antagonist SB-277011-A significantly decreases binge-like consumption of ethanol in C57BL/J6 mice.

Rice OV, Schonhar CA, Gaál J, Gardner EL, Ashby CR Jr.

Synapse. 2015 Jun;69(6):295-8. doi: 10.1002/syn.21816.


R-modafinil attenuates nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

Wang XF, Bi GH, He Y, Yang HJ, Gao JT, Okunola-Bakare OM, Slack RD, Gardner EL, Xi ZX, Newman AH.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Jun;40(7):1762-71. doi: 10.1038/npp.2015.24. Epub 2015 Jan 23.


Species differences in cannabinoid receptor 2 and receptor responses to cocaine self-administration in mice and rats.

Zhang HY, Bi GH, Li X, Li J, Qu H, Zhang SJ, Li CY, Onaivi ES, Gardner EL, Xi ZX, Liu QR.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015 Mar;40(4):1037-51. doi: 10.1038/npp.2014.297. Epub 2014 Nov 6.


Cannabinoid CB2 receptors modulate midbrain dopamine neuronal activity and dopamine-related behavior in mice.

Zhang HY, Gao M, Liu QR, Bi GH, Li X, Yang HJ, Gardner EL, Wu J, Xi ZX.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Nov 18;111(46):E5007-15. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1413210111. Epub 2014 Nov 3.


Blockade of D3 receptors by YQA14 inhibits cocaine's rewarding effects and relapse to drug-seeking behavior in rats.

Song R, Bi GH, Zhang HY, Yang RF, Gardner EL, Li J, Xi ZX.

Neuropharmacology. 2014 Feb;77:398-405. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.10.010. Epub 2013 Oct 28.


A novel mGluR5 antagonist, MFZ 10-7, inhibits cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats.

Keck TM, Zou MF, Bi GH, Zhang HY, Wang XF, Yang HJ, Srivastava R, Gardner EL, Xi ZX, Newman AH.

Addict Biol. 2014 Mar;19(2):195-209. doi: 10.1111/adb.12086. Epub 2013 Sep 4.


Dopamine D(3) receptor deletion or blockade attenuates cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

Song R, Zhang HY, Peng XQ, Su RB, Yang RF, Li J, Xi ZX, Gardner EL.

Neuropharmacology. 2013 Sep;72:82-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2013.04.042. Epub 2013 May 2.


Fenobam sulfate inhibits cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behavior in rats: implications for addiction treatment in humans.

Keck TM, Yang HJ, Bi GH, Huang Y, Zhang HY, Srivastava R, Gardner EL, Newman AH, Xi ZX.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2013 Sep;229(2):253-65. doi: 10.1007/s00213-013-3106-9. Epub 2013 Apr 25.


The selective D₃ receptor antagonist SB-277011A attenuates morphine-triggered reactivation of expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.

Rice OV, Heidbreder CA, Gardner EL, Schonhar CD, Ashby CR Jr.

Synapse. 2013 Aug;67(8):469-75. doi: 10.1002/syn.21653. Epub 2013 Mar 25.


Increased vulnerability to cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D3 receptors.

Song R, Zhang HY, Li X, Bi GH, Gardner EL, Xi ZX.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 23;109(43):17675-80. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1205297109. Epub 2012 Oct 8.


Blockade of dopamine D3 receptors in the nucleus accumbens and central amygdala inhibits incubation of cocaine craving in rats.

Xi ZX, Li X, Li J, Peng XQ, Song R, Gaál J, Gardner EL.

Addict Biol. 2013 Jul;18(4):665-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2012.00486.x. Epub 2012 Aug 23.


Cocaine-taking and cocaine-seeking behaviors in rats remain stable after systemic administration of GYKI 52466: a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist.

Srivastava R, Xi ZX, Gardner EL.

Neurosci Lett. 2012 Feb 6;508(2):106-9. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2011.12.028. Epub 2011 Dec 22.


Brain cannabinoid CB₂ receptors modulate cocaine's actions in mice.

Xi ZX, Peng XQ, Li X, Song R, Zhang HY, Liu QR, Yang HJ, Bi GH, Li J, Gardner EL.

Nat Neurosci. 2011 Jul 24;14(9):1160-6. doi: 10.1038/nn.2874.


Addiction and brain reward and antireward pathways.

Gardner EL.

Adv Psychosom Med. 2011;30:22-60. doi: 10.1159/000324065. Epub 2011 Apr 19. Review.


YQA14: a novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist that inhibits cocaine self-administration in rats and mice, but not in D3 receptor-knockout mice.

Song R, Yang RF, Wu N, Su RB, Li J, Peng XQ, Li X, Gaál J, Xi ZX, Gardner EL.

Addict Biol. 2012 Mar;17(2):259-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1369-1600.2011.00317.x. Epub 2011 Apr 20.


Dopamine D(3) receptor antagonist SB-277011A inhibits methamphetamine self-administration and methamphetamine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking in rats.

Higley AE, Kiefer SW, Li X, Gaál J, Xi ZX, Gardner EL.

Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Jun 1;659(2-3):187-92. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.02.046. Epub 2011 Apr 3.


Is slow-onset long-acting monoamine transport blockade to cocaine as methadone is to heroin? Implication for anti-addiction medications.

Peng XQ, Xi ZX, Li X, Spiller K, Li J, Chun L, Wu KM, Froimowitz M, Gardner EL.

Neuropsychopharmacology. 2010 Dec;35(13):2564-78. doi: 10.1038/npp.2010.133. Epub 2010 Sep 8.


Activation of mGluR7s inhibits cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior by a nucleus accumbens glutamate-mGluR2/3 mechanism in rats.

Li X, Li J, Gardner EL, Xi ZX.

J Neurochem. 2010 Sep 1;114(5):1368-80. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2010.06851.x. Epub 2010 Jun 8.


PG01037, a novel dopamine D3 receptor antagonist, inhibits the effects of methamphetamine in rats.

Higley AE, Spiller K, Grundt P, Newman AH, Kiefer SW, Xi ZX, Gardner EL.

J Psychopharmacol. 2011 Feb;25(2):263-73. doi: 10.1177/0269881109358201. Epub 2010 Feb 8.


Gamma-vinyl GABA increases nonvesicular release of GABA and glutamate in the nucleus accumbens in rats via action on anion channels and GABA transporters.

Peng XQ, Gardner EL, Xi ZX.

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Mar;208(4):511-9. doi: 10.1007/s00213-009-1753-7. Epub 2009 Dec 22.


Inhibition of NAALADase by 2-PMPA attenuates cocaine-induced relapse in rats: a NAAG-mGluR2/3-mediated mechanism.

Xi ZX, Li X, Peng XQ, Li J, Chun L, Gardner EL, Thomas AG, Slusher BS, Ashby CR Jr.

J Neurochem. 2010 Jan;112(2):564-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2009.06478.x. Epub 2009 Nov 6.


Oral administration of the NAALADase inhibitor GPI-5693 attenuates cocaine-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior in rats.

Peng XQ, Li J, Gardner EL, Ashby CR Jr, Thomas A, Wozniak K, Slusher BS, Xi ZX.

Eur J Pharmacol. 2010 Feb 10;627(1-3):156-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2009.10.062. Epub 2009 Oct 31.


N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) inhibits intravenous cocaine self-administration and cocaine-enhanced brain-stimulation reward in rats.

Xi ZX, Kiyatkin M, Li X, Peng XQ, Wiggins A, Spiller K, Li J, Gardner EL.

Neuropharmacology. 2010 Jan;58(1):304-13. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2009.06.016. Epub 2009 Jun 24.


Mechanism-based medication development for the treatment of nicotine dependence.

Xi ZX, Spiller K, Gardner EL.

Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2009 Jun;30(6):723-39. doi: 10.1038/aps.2009.46. Epub 2009 May 11. Review.


Hypothesis-driven medication discovery for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction.

Xi ZX, Gardner EL.

Curr Drug Abuse Rev. 2008 Nov;1(3):303-27. Review.


Varenicline attenuates nicotine-enhanced brain-stimulation reward by activation of alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptors in rats.

Spiller K, Xi ZX, Li X, Ashby CR Jr, Callahan PM, Tehim A, Gardner EL.

Neuropharmacology. 2009 Jul;57(1):60-6. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2009.04.006. Epub 2009 Apr 22.


A single high dose of methamphetamine increases cocaine self-administration by depletion of striatal dopamine in rats.

Xi ZX, Kleitz HK, Deng X, Ladenheim B, Peng XQ, Li X, Gardner EL, Stein EA, Cadet JL.

Neuroscience. 2009 Jun 30;161(2):392-402. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2009.03.060. Epub 2009 Mar 28.

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