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The changing epidemiology of diphtheria in the United Kingdom, 2009 to 2017.

Gower CM, Scobie A, Fry NK, Litt DJ, Cameron JC, Chand MA, Brown CS, Collins S, White JM, Ramsay ME, Amirthalingam G.

Euro Surveill. 2020 Mar;25(11). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.11.1900462.


Characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) caused by emerging serotypes after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in England; prospective observational cohort study, 2014-18.

Amin-Chowdhury Z, Collins S, Sheppard C, Litt D, Fry NK, Andrews N, Ladhani SN.

Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jan 19. pii: ciaa043. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa043. [Epub ahead of print]


Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 3 in England and Wales: A Major Vaccine Evader.

Groves N, Sheppard CL, Litt D, Rose S, Silva A, Njoku N, Rodrigues S, Amin-Chowdhury Z, Andrews N, Ladhani S, Fry NK.

Genes (Basel). 2019 Oct 25;10(11). pii: E845. doi: 10.3390/genes10110845.


Pneumococcal serotype trends, surveillance and risk factors in UK adult pneumonia, 2013-18.

Pick H, Daniel P, Rodrigo C, Bewick T, Ashton D, Lawrence H, Baskaran V, Edwards-Pritchard RC, Sheppard C, Eletu SD, Rose S, Litt D, Fry NK, Ladhani S, Chand M, Trotter C, McKeever TM, Lim WS.

Thorax. 2020 Jan;75(1):38-49. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2019-213725. Epub 2019 Oct 8.


The Genomics of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Carriage Isolates from UK Children and Their Household Contacts, Pre-PCV7 to Post-PCV13.

Sheppard CL, Groves N, Andrews N, Litt DJ, Fry NK, Southern J, Miller E.

Genes (Basel). 2019 Sep 6;10(9). pii: E687. doi: 10.3390/genes10090687.


Improved quadruplex real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis of diphtheria.

Badell E, Guillot S, Tulliez M, Pascal M, Panunzi LG, Rose S, Litt D, Fry NK, Brisse S.

J Med Microbiol. 2019 Oct;68(10):1455-1465. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.001070. Epub 2019 Sep 3.


Effect of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines on Pneumococcal Meningitis, England and Wales, July 1, 2000-June 30, 2016.

Oligbu G, Collins S, Djennad A, Sheppard CL, Fry NK, Andrews NJ, Borrow R, Ramsay ME, Ladhani SN.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2019 Sep;25(9):1708-1718. doi: 10.3201/eid2509.180747.


Diphtheria in Belgium: 2010-2017.

Martini H, Soetens O, Litt D, Fry NK, Detemmerman L, Wybo I, Desombere I, Efstratiou A, Piérard D.

J Med Microbiol. 2019 Oct;68(10):1517-1525. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.001039.


Pertussis Prevention: Reasons for Resurgence, and Differences in the Current Acellular Pertussis Vaccines.

Esposito S, Stefanelli P, Fry NK, Fedele G, He Q, Paterson P, Tan T, Knuf M, Rodrigo C, Weil Olivier C, Flanagan KL, Hung I, Lutsar I, Edwards K, O'Ryan M, Principi N; World Association of Infectious Diseases and Immunological Disorders (WAidid) and the Vaccine Study Group of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (EVASG).

Front Immunol. 2019 Jul 3;10:1344. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01344. eCollection 2019. Review.


Pneumococcal-related Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome in the United Kingdom: National Surveillance, 2006-2016.

Makwana A, Sheppard C, Fry NK, Ladhani SN.

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2019 Oct;38(10):e254-e259. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002368.


Effectiveness of 23-Valent Polysaccharide Pneumococcal Vaccine and Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Incidence from 2000 to 2017 in Those Aged 65 and Over in England and Wales.

Djennad A, Ramsay ME, Pebody R, Fry NK, Sheppard C, Ladhani SN, Andrews NJ.

EClinicalMedicine. 2019 Jan 2;6:42-50. doi: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2018.12.007. eCollection 2018 Dec.


Improvement in serological diagnosis of pertussis by external quality assessment.

Markey K, Douglas-Bardsley A, Asokanathan C, Fry NK, Barkoff AM, Bacci S, Ködmön C, He Q.

J Med Microbiol. 2019 May;68(5):741-747. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000926. Epub 2019 Apr 16.


In praise of preprints.

Fry NK, Marshall H, Mellins-Cohen T.

Microb Genom. 2019 Apr;5(4). doi: 10.1099/mgen.0.000259. Epub 2019 Apr 2. No abstract available.


In praise of preprints.

Fry NK, Marshall H, Mellins-Cohen T.

Microbiology. 2019 May;165(5):489-491. doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000785. Epub 2019 Apr 2. No abstract available.


In praise of preprints.

Fry NK, Marshall H, Mellins-Cohen T.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2019 Jul;69(7):1841-1843. doi: 10.1099/ijsem.0.003323. Epub 2019 Apr 2. No abstract available.


In praise of preprints.

Fry NK, Marshall H, Mellins-Cohen T.

J Med Microbiol. 2019 Apr;68(4):503-505. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000954. Epub 2019 Apr 2. No abstract available.


In praise of preprints.

Fry NK, Marshall H, Mellins-Cohen T.

J Gen Virol. 2019 May;100(5):733-735. doi: 10.1099/jgv.0.001239. Epub 2019 Apr 2. No abstract available.


The Epidemiology and Biostatistics of Pneumococcus.

Oligbu G, Fry NK, Ladhani SN.

Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1968:215-224. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9199-0_18.


The Pneumococcus and Its Critical Role in Public Health.

Oligbu G, Fry NK, Ladhani SN.

Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1968:205-213. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9199-0_17.


Pertactin-deficient Bordetella pertussis isolates: evidence of increased circulation in Europe, 1998 to 2015.

Barkoff AM, Mertsola J, Pierard D, Dalby T, Hoegh SV, Guillot S, Stefanelli P, van Gent M, Berbers G, Vestrheim D, Greve-Isdahl M, Wehlin L, Ljungman M, Fry NK, Markey K, He Q.

Euro Surveill. 2019 Feb;24(7). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2019.24.7.1700832.



Fry NK, La Ragione RM, Ready D.

J Med Microbiol. 2019 Mar;68(3):289. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000899. Epub 2019 Jan 3. No abstract available.


Effect of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive disease in older adults of 10 European countries: implications for adult vaccination.

Hanquet G, Krizova P, Valentiner-Branth P, Ladhani SN, Nuorti JP, Lepoutre A, Mereckiene J, Knol M, Winje BA, Ciruela P, Ordobas M, Guevara M, McDonald E, Morfeldt E, Kozakova J, Slotved HC, Fry NK, Rinta-Kokko H, Varon E, Corcoran M, van der Ende A, Vestrheim DF, Munoz-Almagro C, Latasa P, Castilla J, Smith A, Henriques-Normark B, Whittaker R, Pastore Celentano L, Savulescu C; SpIDnet/I-MOVE+ Pneumo Group.

Thorax. 2019 May;74(5):473-482. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2018-211767. Epub 2018 Oct 24.


Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in UK Children <1 Year of Age in the Post-13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Era: What Are the Risks Now?

Kent A, Makwana A, Sheppard CL, Collins S, Fry NK, Heath PT, Ramsay M, Ladhani SN.

Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Jun 18;69(1):84-90. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy842.


Transmission of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae by a fully immunised resident returning from a visit to West Africa, United Kingdom, 2017.

Edwards D, Kent D, Lester C, Brown CS, Murphy ME, Brown NM, Sule O, Itani A, Chand M, Trindall A, Pearson C, Roddick I, Fry NK, Hoffmann J, Iyanger N, Kemp L, White J, Javid B, Ramsay ID, Zenner D, Ahmed A, Amirthalingam G, Salimee S, Litt D, Reacher M.

Euro Surveill. 2018 Sep;23(39). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.39.1700681. Erratum in: Euro Surveill. 2018 Oct;23(42):.


Rapid Spread of Pneumococcal Nonvaccine Serotype 7C Previously Associated with Vaccine Serotype 19F, England and Wales.

Makwana A, Ladhani SN, Kapatai G, Campion E, Fry NK, Sheppard C.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Oct;24(10):1919-1922. doi: 10.3201/eid2410.180114.


Pneumococcal carriage in children and their household contacts six years after introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in England.

Southern J, Andrews N, Sandu P, Sheppard CL, Waight PA, Fry NK, Van Hoek AJ, Miller E.

PLoS One. 2018 May 25;13(5):e0195799. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195799. eCollection 2018.


Discovery and description of a new serogroup 7 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype, 7D, and structural analysis of 7C and 7D.

Kjeldsen C, Slott S, Elverdal PL, Sheppard CL, Kapatai G, Fry NK, Skovsted IC, Duus JØ.

Carbohydr Res. 2018 Jun 30;463:24-31. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2018.04.011. Epub 2018 Apr 23.


Surveillance of Circulating Bordetella pertussis Strains in Europe during 1998 to 2015.

Barkoff AM, Mertsola J, Pierard D, Dalby T, Hoegh SV, Guillot S, Stefanelli P, van Gent M, Berbers G, Vestrheim DF, Greve-Isdahl M, Wehlin L, Ljungman M, Fry NK, Markey K, Auranen K, He Q.

J Clin Microbiol. 2018 Apr 25;56(5). pii: e01998-17. doi: 10.1128/JCM.01998-17. Print 2018 May.


Rapid increase in non-vaccine serotypes causing invasive pneumococcal disease in England and Wales, 2000-17: a prospective national observational cohort study.

Ladhani SN, Collins S, Djennad A, Sheppard CL, Borrow R, Fry NK, Andrews NJ, Miller E, Ramsay ME.

Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Apr;18(4):441-451. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30052-5. Epub 2018 Jan 26. Erratum in: Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Feb 6;:.


Characteristics and Serotype Distribution of Childhood Cases of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Following Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in England and Wales, 2006-2014.

Oligbu G, Collins S, Andrews N, Sheppard CL, Fry NK, Slack MPE, Borrow R, Ladhani SN.

Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Oct 1;65(7):1191-1198. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix418.


External Quality Assurance for Laboratory Identification and Capsular Typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Slotved HC, Sheppard CL, Dalby T, van der Ende A, Fry NK, Morfeldt E, Nyholm O, Rokney A, Ron M, Siira L, Scott KJ, Smith A, Thom L, Toropainen M, Vestrheim DF.

Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 16;7(1):13280. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-13605-8.


Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

Principi N, Litt D, Terranova L, Picca M, Malvaso C, Vitale C, Fry NK, Esposito S, The Italian Pertussis Group For Persistent Cough In Children.

J Med Microbiol. 2017 Nov;66(11):1699-1702. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000607. Epub 2017 Oct 6.


Development of an Extended-Specificity Multiplex Immunoassay for Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype-Specific Antigen in Urine by Use of Human Monoclonal Antibodies.

Eletu SD, Sheppard CL, Thomas E, Smith K, Daniel P, Litt DJ, Lim WS, Fry NK.

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2017 Dec 5;24(12). pii: e00262-17. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00262-17. Print 2017 Dec.


Pneumococcal 23B Molecular Subtype Identified Using Whole Genome Sequencing.

Kapatai G, Sheppard CL, Troxler LJ, Litt DJ, Furrer J, Hilty M, Fry NK.

Genome Biol Evol. 2017 Aug 1;9(8):2122-2135. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evx092.


Welcome from Norman Fry and Kalai Mathee, new co-Editors-in-Chief for the Journal of Medical Microbiology.

Fry NK, Mathee K.

J Med Microbiol. 2017 Jul;66(7):846. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000520. No abstract available.


Clinical streptococcal isolates, distinct from Streptococcus pneumoniae, but containing the β-glucosyltransferase tts gene and expressing serotype 37 capsular polysaccharide.

Sheppard CL, Kapatai G, Broughton K, Schaefer U, Hannah M, Litt DJ, Fry NK.

PeerJ. 2017 Jul 18;5:e3571. doi: 10.7717/peerj.3571. eCollection 2017.


Serious pneumococcal disease outbreak in men exposed to metal fume - detection, response and future prevention through pneumococcal vaccination.

Ewing J, Patterson L, Irvine N, Doherty L, Loughrey A, Kidney J, Sheppard C, Kapatai G, Fry NK, Ramsay M, Jessop L.

Vaccine. 2017 Jul 13;35(32):3945-3950. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.06.010. Epub 2017 Jun 19.


Childhood Deaths Attributable to Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in England and Wales, 2006-2014.

Oligbu G, Collins S, Sheppard CL, Fry NK, Slack M, Borrow R, Ladhani SN.

Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 15;65(2):308-314. doi: 10.1093/cid/cix310.


Use of a serotype-specific urine immunoassay to determine the course of a hospital outbreak of Streptococcus pneumoniae complicated by influenza A.

Sheppard CL, Clark J, Slack MP, Fry NK, Harrison TG.

JMM Case Rep. 2016 Feb 12;3(1):e005002. doi: 10.1099/jmmcr.0.005002. eCollection 2016 Feb.


Rise of multidrug-resistant non-vaccine serotype 15A Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United Kingdom, 2001 to 2014.

Sheppard C, Fry NK, Mushtaq S, Woodford N, Reynolds R, Janes R, Pike R, Hill R, Kimuli M, Staves P, Doumith M, Harrison T, Livermore DM.

Euro Surveill. 2016 Dec 15;21(50). pii: 30423. doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.50.30423.


Nosocomial Outbreak of Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype 9V in an Adult Respiratory Medicine Ward.

Jauneikaite E, Khan-Orakzai Z, Kapatai G, Bloch S, Singleton J, Atkin S, Shah V, Hatcher J, Samarasinghe D, Sheppard C, Fry NK, Satta G, Sriskandan S.

J Clin Microbiol. 2017 Mar;55(3):776-782. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02405-16. Epub 2016 Dec 14.


Development, validation and implementation of a quadruplex real-time PCR assay for identification of potentially toxigenic corynebacteria.

De Zoysa A, Efstratiou A, Mann G, Harrison TG, Fry NK.

J Med Microbiol. 2016 Dec;65(12):1521-1527. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.000382. Epub 2016 Nov 1.


Sustained Effectiveness of the Maternal Pertussis Immunization Program in England 3 Years Following Introduction.

Amirthalingam G, Campbell H, Ribeiro S, Fry NK, Ramsay M, Miller E, Andrews N.

Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Dec 1;63(suppl 4):S236-S243.


New Public Health England guidelines for managing pertussis in England.

Amirthalingam G, Brown CS, Campbell H, Chand MA, Fry NK.

J Infect. 2017 Feb;74(2):202-204. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2016.11.003. Epub 2016 Nov 10. No abstract available.


Survey of Household Contacts of Infants With Laboratory-confirmed Pertussis Infection During a National Pertussis Outbreak in England and Wales.

Kara EO, Campbell H, Ribeiro S, Fry NK, Litt D, Eletu S, Amirthalingam G.

Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Feb;36(2):140-145. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001378.


Acquisition and loss of virulence-associated factors during genome evolution and speciation in three clades of Bordetella species.

Linz B, Ivanov YV, Preston A, Brinkac L, Parkhill J, Kim M, Harris SR, Goodfield LL, Fry NK, Gorringe AR, Nicholson TL, Register KB, Losada L, Harvill ET.

BMC Genomics. 2016 Sep 30;17(1):767.


Whole genome sequencing of Streptococcus pneumoniae: development, evaluation and verification of targets for serogroup and serotype prediction using an automated pipeline.

Kapatai G, Sheppard CL, Al-Shahib A, Litt DJ, Underwood AP, Harrison TG, Fry NK.

PeerJ. 2016 Sep 14;4:e2477. doi: 10.7717/peerj.2477. eCollection 2016.


Current epidemiology of tetanus in England, 2001-2014.

Collins S, Amirthalingam G, Beeching NJ, Chand MA, Godbole G, Ramsay ME, Fry NK, White JM.

Epidemiol Infect. 2016 Dec;144(16):3343-3353. doi: 10.1017/S095026881600128X. Epub 2016 Aug 18.


Evaluation of an Optimal Epidemiological Typing Scheme for Legionella pneumophila with Whole-Genome Sequence Data Using Validation Guidelines.

David S, Mentasti M, Tewolde R, Aslett M, Harris SR, Afshar B, Underwood A, Fry NK, Parkhill J, Harrison TG.

J Clin Microbiol. 2016 Aug;54(8):2135-48. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00432-16. Epub 2016 Jun 8.


Analysis of Bordetella pertussis clinical isolates circulating in European countries during the period 1998-2012.

van Gent M, Heuvelman CJ, van der Heide HG, Hallander HO, Advani A, Guiso N, Wirsing von Kőnig CH, Vestrheim DF, Dalby T, Fry NK, Pierard D, Detemmerman L, Zavadilova J, Fabianova K, Logan C, Habington A, Byrne M, Lutyńska A, Mosiej E, Pelaz C, Gröndahl-Yli-Hannuksela K, Barkoff AM, Mertsola J, Economopoulou A, He Q, Mooi FR.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015 Apr;34(4):821-30. doi: 10.1007/s10096-014-2297-2. Epub 2014 Dec 20.

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