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The implications of three major new trials for the effect of water, sanitation and hygiene on childhood diarrhea and stunting: a consensus statement.

Cumming O, Arnold BF, Ban R, Clasen T, Esteves Mills J, Freeman MC, Gordon B, Guiteras R, Howard G, Hunter PR, Johnston RB, Pickering AJ, Prendergast AJ, Prüss-Ustün A, Rosenboom JW, Spears D, Sundberg S, Wolf J, Null C, Luby SP, Humphrey JH, Colford JM Jr.

BMC Med. 2019 Aug 28;17(1):173. doi: 10.1186/s12916-019-1410-x.


Assessing longer-term effectiveness of a combined household-level piped water and sanitation intervention on child diarrhoea, acute respiratory infection, soil-transmitted helminth infection and nutritional status: a matched cohort study in rural Odisha, India.

Reese H, Routray P, Torondel B, Sinharoy SS, Mishra S, Freeman MC, Chang HH, Clasen T.

Int J Epidemiol. 2019 Jul 30. pii: dyz157. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyz157. [Epub ahead of print]


Design of a parallel cluster-randomized trial assessing the impact of a demand-side sanitation and hygiene intervention on sustained behavior change and mental well-being in rural and peri-urban Amhara, Ethiopia: Andilaye study protocol.

Delea MG, Snyder JS, Belew M, Caruso BA, Garn JV, Sclar GD, Woreta M, Zewudie K, Gebremariam A, Freeman MC.

BMC Public Health. 2019 Jun 21;19(1):801. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-7040-6.


The role of water, sanitation and hygiene interventions in reducing soil-transmitted helminths: interpreting the evidence and identifying next steps.

Vaz Nery S, Pickering AJ, Abate E, Asmare A, Barrett L, Benjamin-Chung J, Bundy DAP, Clasen T, Clements ACA, Colford JM Jr, Ercumen A, Crowley S, Cumming O, Freeman MC, Haque R, Mengistu B, Oswald WE, Pullan RL, Oliveira RG, Einterz Owen K, Walson JL, Youya A, Brooker SJ.

Parasit Vectors. 2019 May 28;12(1):273. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3532-6. Review.


Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene for selected adverse health outcomes: An updated analysis with a focus on low- and middle-income countries.

Prüss-Ustün A, Wolf J, Bartram J, Clasen T, Cumming O, Freeman MC, Gordon B, Hunter PR, Medlicott K, Johnston R.

Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2019 Jun;222(5):765-777. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2019.05.004. Epub 2019 May 12.


Associations between soil-transmitted helminthiasis and viral, bacterial, and protozoal enteroinfections: a cross-sectional study in rural Laos.

Chard AN, Baker KK, Tsai K, Levy K, Sistrunk JR, Chang HH, Freeman MC.

Parasit Vectors. 2019 May 7;12(1):216. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3471-2.


Challenges and opportunities for control and elimination of soil-transmitted helminth infection beyond 2020.

Freeman MC, Akogun O, Belizario V Jr, Brooker SJ, Gyorkos TW, Imtiaz R, Krolewiecki A, Lee S, Matendechero SH, Pullan RL, Utzinger J.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019 Apr 11;13(4):e0007201. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007201. eCollection 2019 Apr. No abstract available.


New Cluster of Acute Flaccid Myelitis in Western Pennsylvania.

Cramer N, Munjal N, Ware D, Ramgopal S, Simon D, Freeman MC, Michaels MG, Stem C, Thakkar K, Williams JV, Panigrahy A, Neville DNW, Owusu-Ansah S.

Ann Emerg Med. 2019 Feb 27. pii: S0196-0644(19)30051-4. doi: 10.1016/j.annemergmed.2019.01.024. [Epub ahead of print]


Results of a national school-based deworming programme on soil-transmitted helminths infections and schistosomiasis in Kenya: 2012-2017.

Mwandawiro C, Okoyo C, Kihara J, Simiyu E, Kepha S, Campbell SJ, Freeman MC, Brooker SJ, Njenga SM.

Parasit Vectors. 2019 Feb 7;12(1):76. doi: 10.1186/s13071-019-3322-1.


The impact of water consumption on hydration and cognition among schoolchildren: Methods and results from a crossover trial in rural Mali.

Chard AN, Trinies V, Edmonds CJ, Sogore A, Freeman MC.

PLoS One. 2019 Jan 17;14(1):e0210568. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0210568. eCollection 2019.


Handwashing with soap after potential faecal contact: Global, regional and country estimates for handwashing with soap after potential faecal contact.

Wolf J, Johnston R, Freeman MC, Ram PK, Slaymaker T, Laurenz E, Prüss-Ustün A.

Int J Epidemiol. 2018 Dec 10. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyy253. [Epub ahead of print]


Emerging arboviruses and implications for pediatric transplantation: A review.

Freeman MC, Coyne CB, Green M, Williams JV, Silva LA.

Pediatr Transplant. 2019 Feb;23(1):e13303. doi: 10.1111/petr.13303. Epub 2018 Oct 19. Review.


Exploring the relationship between sanitation and mental and social well-being: A systematic review and qualitative synthesis.

Sclar GD, Penakalapati G, Caruso BA, Rehfuess EA, Garn JV, Alexander KT, Freeman MC, Boisson S, Medlicott K, Clasen T.

Soc Sci Med. 2018 Nov;217:121-134. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.09.016. Epub 2018 Sep 19. Review.


Quantifying user preferences for sanitation construction and use: Application of discrete choice experiments in Amhara, Ethiopia.

Goddard FGB, Delea MG, Sclar GD, Woreta M, Zewudie K, Freeman MC.

Trop Med Int Health. 2018 Dec;23(12):1364-1373. doi: 10.1111/tmi.13163. Epub 2018 Oct 31.


Collective Efficacy: Development and Validation of a Measurement Scale for Use in Public Health and Development Programmes.

Delea MG, Sclar GD, Woreta M, Haardörfer R, Nagel CL, Caruso BA, Dreibelbis R, Gobezayehu AG, Clasen TF, Freeman MC.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Sep 28;15(10). pii: E2139. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15102139.


Development and Application of Novel Caregiver Hygiene Behavior Measures Relating to Food Preparation, Handwashing, and Play Environments in Rural Kenya.

Wodnik BK, Freeman MC, Ellis AS, Awino Ogutu E, Webb Girard A, Caruso BA.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Sep 13;15(9). pii: E1994. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15091994.


Toward the 2020 goal of soil-transmitted helminthiasis control and elimination.

Becker SL, Liwanag HJ, Snyder JS, Akogun O, Belizario V Jr, Freeman MC, Gyorkos TW, Imtiaz R, Keiser J, Krolewiecki A, Levecke B, Mwandawiro C, Pullan RL, Addiss DG, Utzinger J.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Aug 14;12(8):e0006606. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006606. eCollection 2018 Aug. No abstract available.


Global lessons for deinstitutionalisation from the ill-fated transfer of mental health-care users in Gauteng, South Africa.

Freeman MC.

Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 Sep;5(9):765-768. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(18)30211-6. Epub 2018 Jul 17.


Pathogens transmitted in animal feces in low- and middle-income countries.

Delahoy MJ, Wodnik B, McAliley L, Penakalapati G, Swarthout J, Freeman MC, Levy K.

Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 May;221(4):661-676. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.03.005. Epub 2018 Mar 15. Review.


The impact of school water, sanitation, and hygiene improvements on infectious disease using serum antibody detection.

Chard AN, Trinies V, Moss DM, Chang HH, Doumbia S, Lammie PJ, Freeman MC.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Apr 16;12(4):e0006418. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006418. eCollection 2018 Apr.


The associations between water and sanitation and hookworm infection using cross-sectional data from Togo's national deworming program.

Baker JM, Trinies V, Bronzan RN, Dorkenoo AM, Garn JV, Sognikin S, Freeman MC.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Mar 28;12(3):e0006374. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006374. eCollection 2018 Mar.


Detection of Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Taenia solium Cysticercosis Antigen Glutathione-S-Transferase-rT24H in Malian Children Using Multiplex Bead Assay.

Moss DM, Handali S, Chard AN, Trinies V, Bullard S, Wiegand RE, Doumbia S, Freeman MC, Lammie PJ.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 May;98(5):1408-1412. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0310. Epub 2018 Mar 22.


Design, Intervention Fidelity, and Behavioral Outcomes of a School-Based Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Cluster-Randomized Trial in Laos.

Chard AN, Freeman MC.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Mar 22;15(4). pii: E570. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040570.


Within-Compound Versus Public Latrine Access and Child Feces Disposal Practices in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana.

Ritter RL, Peprah D, Null C, Moe CL, Armah G, Ampofo J, Wellington N, Yakubu H, Robb K, Kirby AE, Wang Y, Roguski K, Reese H, Agbemabiese CA, Adomako LAB, Freeman MC, Baker KK.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 May;98(5):1250-1259. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0654. Epub 2018 Mar 15.


Impact of drinking water, sanitation and handwashing with soap on childhood diarrhoeal disease: updated meta-analysis and meta-regression.

Wolf J, Hunter PR, Freeman MC, Cumming O, Clasen T, Bartram J, Higgins JPT, Johnston R, Medlicott K, Boisson S, Prüss-Ustün A.

Trop Med Int Health. 2018 May;23(5):508-525. doi: 10.1111/tmi.13051. Epub 2018 Apr 23. Review.


Long-term study of the efficacy and safety of OnabotulinumtoxinA for the prevention of chronic migraine: COMPEL study.

Blumenfeld AM, Stark RJ, Freeman MC, Orejudos A, Manack Adams A.

J Headache Pain. 2018 Feb 5;19(1):13. doi: 10.1186/s10194-018-0840-8.


Interventions to maximize facial cleanliness and achieve environmental improvement for trachoma elimination: A review of the grey literature.

Delea MG, Solomon H, Solomon AW, Freeman MC.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Jan 25;12(1):e0006178. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006178. eCollection 2018 Jan. Review.


Sanitation and water supply coverage thresholds associated with active trachoma: Modeling cross-sectional data from 13 countries.

Garn JV, Boisson S, Willis R, Bakhtiari A, Al-Khatib T, Amer K, Batcho W, Courtright P, Dejene M, Goepogui A, Kalua K, Kebede B, Macleod CK, Madeleine KIM, Mbofana MSA, Mpyet C, Ndjemba J, Olobio N, Pavluck AL, Sokana O, Southisombath K, Taleo F, Solomon AW, Freeman MC.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Jan 22;12(1):e0006110. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006110. eCollection 2018 Jan.


From menarche to menopause: A population-based assessment of water, sanitation, and hygiene risk factors for reproductive tract infection symptoms over life stages in rural girls and women in India.

Baker KK, Padhi B, Torondel B, Das P, Dutta A, Sahoo KC, Das B, Dreibelbis R, Caruso B, Freeman MC, Sager L, Panigrahi P.

PLoS One. 2017 Dec 5;12(12):e0188234. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188234. eCollection 2017.


Comparison of respondent-reported and sensor-recorded latrine utilization measures in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

Delea MG, Nagel CL, Thomas EA, Halder AK, Amin N, Shoab AK, Freeman MC, Unicomb L, Clasen TF.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Jul 1;111(7):308-315. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/trx058.


Cholera control and anti-Haitian stigma in the Dominican Republic: from migration policy to lived experience.

Keys HM, Kaiser BN, Foster JW, Freeman MC, Stephenson R, Lund AJ, Kohrt BA.

Anthropol Med. 2019 Aug;26(2):123-141. doi: 10.1080/13648470.2017.1368829. Epub 2017 Oct 23.


Multipathway Quantitative Assessment of Exposure to Fecal Contamination for Young Children in Low-Income Urban Environments in Accra, Ghana: The SaniPath Analytical Approach.

Wang Y, Moe CL, Null C, Raj SJ, Baker KK, Robb KA, Yakubu H, Ampofo JA, Wellington N, Freeman MC, Armah G, Reese HE, Peprah D, Teunis PFM.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Oct;97(4):1009-1019. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0408.


Exposure to Animal Feces and Human Health: A Systematic Review and Proposed Research Priorities.

Penakalapati G, Swarthout J, Delahoy MJ, McAliley L, Wodnik B, Levy K, Freeman MC.

Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Oct 17;51(20):11537-11552. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b02811. Epub 2017 Oct 9. Review.


Physical, Social, and Political Inequities Constraining Girls' Menstrual Management at Schools in Informal Settlements of Nairobi, Kenya.

Girod C, Ellis A, Andes KL, Freeman MC, Caruso BA.

J Urban Health. 2017 Dec;94(6):835-846. doi: 10.1007/s11524-017-0189-3.


Effects of sanitation on cognitive development and school absence: A systematic review.

Sclar GD, Garn JV, Penakalapati G, Alexander KT, Krauss J, Freeman MC, Boisson S, Medlicott KO, Clasen T.

Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017 Aug;220(6):917-927. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.06.010. Epub 2017 Jul 1. Review.


Open defecation explains differences in nutritional status between Bengali and tribal children in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh.

Sinharoy SS, Waid JL, Freeman MC, Stein AD.

Ethn Health. 2019 Jul;24(5):575-587. doi: 10.1080/13557858.2017.1346186. Epub 2017 Jul 1.


Preventing Episodic Migraine With Caloric Vestibular Stimulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Wilkinson D, Ade KK, Rogers LL, Attix DK, Kuchibhatla M, Slade MD, Smith LL, Poynter KP, Laskowitz DT, Freeman MC, Hoffer ME, Saper JR, Scott DL, Sakel M, Calhoun AH, Black RD.

Headache. 2017 Jul;57(7):1065-1087. doi: 10.1111/head.13120. Epub 2017 Jun 27.


The impact of sanitation on infectious disease and nutritional status: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Freeman MC, Garn JV, Sclar GD, Boisson S, Medlicott K, Alexander KT, Penakalapati G, Anderson D, Mahtani AG, Grimes JET, Rehfuess EA, Clasen TF.

Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017 Aug;220(6):928-949. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.05.007. Epub 2017 May 31. Review.


Collaborating to develop joint water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and neglected tropical disease (NTD) sector monitoring: an expert consultation.

Waite RC, Woods G, Velleman Y, Freeman MC.

Int Health. 2017 Jul 1;9(4):215-225. doi: 10.1093/inthealth/ihx008.


Association of community sanitation usage with soil-transmitted helminth infections among school-aged children in Amhara Region, Ethiopia.

Oswald WE, Stewart AE, Kramer MR, Endeshaw T, Zerihun M, Melak B, Sata E, Gessese D, Teferi T, Tadesse Z, Guadie B, King JD, Emerson PM, Callahan EK, Freeman MC, Flanders WD, Clasen TF, Moe CL.

Parasit Vectors. 2017 Feb 17;10(1):91. doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2020-0.


The Role of Adherence on the Impact of a School-Based Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Intervention in Mali.

Garn JV, Trinies V, Toubkiss J, Freeman MC.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Apr;96(4):984-993. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0558. Epub 2017 Jan 16.


The Authors Respond.

Garn JV, Brumback BA, Freeman MC.

Epidemiology. 2017 May;28(3):e27. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000615. No abstract available.


Comparing Sanitation Delivery Modalities in Urban Informal Settlement Schools: A Randomized Trial in Nairobi, Kenya.

Bohnert K, Chard AN, Mwaki A, Kirby AE, Muga R, Nagel CL, Thomas EA, Freeman MC.

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Nov 30;13(12). pii: E1189.


Evaluation of Immunoglobulin G Responses to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in Malian School Children Using Multiplex Bead Assay.

Rogier E, Moss DM, Chard AN, Trinies V, Doumbia S, Freeman MC, Lammie PJ.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Feb 8;96(2):312-318. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0476. Epub 2016 Nov 28.


The impact of sanitation interventions on latrine coverage and latrine use: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Garn JV, Sclar GD, Freeman MC, Penakalapati G, Alexander KT, Brooks P, Rehfuess EA, Boisson S, Medlicott KO, Clasen TF.

Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017 Apr;220(2 Pt B):329-340. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.10.001. Epub 2016 Oct 11. Review.


Serological Responses to Filarial Antigens in Malian Children Attending Elementary Schools.

Moss DM, Chard AN, Trinies V, Doumbia S, Freeman MC, Lammie PJ.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017 Jan 11;96(1):229-232. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0560. Epub 2016 Oct 31.


Assessing the impact of sanitation on indicators of fecal exposure along principal transmission pathways: A systematic review.

Sclar GD, Penakalapati G, Amato HK, Garn JV, Alexander K, Freeman MC, Boisson S, Medlicott KO, Clasen T.

Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2016 Nov;219(8):709-723. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.09.021. Epub 2016 Oct 1. Review.


The impact of a rural sanitation programme on safe disposal of child faeces: a cluster randomised trial in Odisha, India.

Freeman MC, Majorin F, Boisson S, Routray P, Torondel B, Clasen T.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Jul;110(7):386-92. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/trw043.


Monitoring the impact of a national school based deworming programme on soil-transmitted helminths in Kenya: the first three years, 2012 - 2014.

Okoyo C, Nikolay B, Kihara J, Simiyu E, Garn JV, Freeman MC, Mwanje MT, Mukoko DA, Brooker SJ, Pullan RL, Njenga SM, Mwandawiro CS.

Parasit Vectors. 2016 Jul 25;9(1):408. doi: 10.1186/s13071-016-1679-y.

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