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Medroxyprogesterone acetate alters the vaginal microbiota and microenvironment in women and increases susceptibility to HIV-1 in humanized mice.

Wessels JM, Lajoie J, Cooper MIJH, Omollo K, Felker AM, Vitali D, Dupont HA, Nguyen PV, Mueller K, Vahedi F, Kimani J, Oyugi J, Cheruiyot J, Mungai JN, Deshiere A, Tremblay MJ, Mazzulli T, Stearns JC, Ashkar AA, Fowke KR, Surette MG, Kaushic C.

Dis Model Mech. 2019 Oct 23;12(10). pii: dmm039669. doi: 10.1242/dmm.039669.


Roles, function and relevance of LAG3 in HIV infection.

Graydon CG, Balasko AL, Fowke KR.

PLoS Pathog. 2019 Jan 17;15(1):e1007429. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007429. eCollection 2019 Jan. Review.


Increased Cervical CD4+CCR5+ T Cells Among Kenyan Sex Working Women Using Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate.

Lajoie J, Tjernlund A, Omollo K, Edfeldt G, Röhl M, Boily-Larouche G, Cheruiyot J, Kimani M, Kimani J, Oyugi J, Broliden K, Fowke KR.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2019 Mar;35(3):236-246. doi: 10.1089/AID.2018.0188. Epub 2019 Jan 24.


Characterization of the Genital Mucosa Immune Profile to Distinguish Phases of the Menstrual Cycle: Implications for HIV Susceptibility.

Boily-Larouche G, Lajoie J, Dufault B, Omollo K, Cheruiyot J, Njoki J, Kowatsch M, Kimani M, Kimani J, Oyugi J, Fowke KR.

J Infect Dis. 2019 Feb 23;219(6):856-866. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiy585.


Using safe, affordable and accessible non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to reduce the number of HIV target cells in the blood and at the female genital tract.

Lajoie J, Birse K, Mwangi L, Chen Y, Cheruiyot J, Akolo M, Mungai J, Boily-Larouche G, Romas L, Mutch S, Kimani M, Oyugi J, Ho EA, Burgener A, Kimani J, Fowke KR.

J Int AIDS Soc. 2018 Jul;21(7):e25150. doi: 10.1002/jia2.25150.


Implant delivering hydroxychloroquine attenuates vaginal T lymphocyte activation and inflammation.

Chen Y, Traore YL, Yang S, Lajoie J, Fowke KR, Rickey DW, Ho EA.

J Control Release. 2018 May 10;277:102-113. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2018.03.010. Epub 2018 Mar 13.


Association of high-risk sexual behaviour with diversity of the vaginal microbiota and abundance of Lactobacillus.

Wessels JM, Lajoie J, Vitali D, Omollo K, Kimani J, Oyugi J, Cheruiyot J, Kimani M, Mungai JN, Akolo M, Stearns JC, Surette MG, Fowke KR, Kaushic C.

PLoS One. 2017 Nov 2;12(11):e0187612. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0187612. eCollection 2017.


CD161 identifies polyfunctional Th1/Th17 cells in the genital mucosa that are depleted in HIV-infected female sex workers from Nairobi, Kenya.

Boily-Larouche G, Omollo K, Cheruiyot J, Njoki J, Kimani M, Kimani J, Oyugi J, Lajoie J, Fowke KR.

Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 11;7(1):11123. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-11706-y.


Preventing HIV infection without targeting the virus: how reducing HIV target cells at the genital tract is a new approach to HIV prevention.

Lajoie J, Mwangi L, Fowke KR.

AIDS Res Ther. 2017 Sep 12;14(1):46. doi: 10.1186/s12981-017-0166-7. Review.


Chemorepellent Semaphorin 3E Negatively Regulates Neutrophil Migration In Vitro and In Vivo.

Movassagh H, Saati A, Nandagopal S, Mohammed A, Tatari N, Shan L, Duke-Cohan JS, Fowke KR, Lin F, Gounni AS.

J Immunol. 2017 Feb 1;198(3):1023-1033. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1601093. Epub 2016 Dec 2.


Improving Adherence to Post-Cervical Biopsy Sexual Abstinence in Kenyan Female Sex Workers.

Lajoie J, Boily-Larouche G, Doering K, Cheruiyot J, Oyugi J, Broliden K, Kimani J, Fowke KR.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2016 Jul;76(1):82-93. doi: 10.1111/aji.12520. Epub 2016 May 24.


Comparison of hemagglutination inhibition and microbead array assays for the measurement of influenza antibody levels in HIV-infected adults.

Thorne A, Chowdhury F, Singer J, Keynan Y, Fowke KR, Cooper C; CIHR Canadian HIV Trials Network (CTN) Influenza Vaccine Research Group.

Vaccine. 2016 Jun 30;34(31):3584-91. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.05.020. Epub 2016 May 19.


The Impact of Sex Work Interruption on Blood-Derived T Cells in Sex Workers from Nairobi, Kenya.

Omollo K, Boily-Larouche G, Lajoie J, Kimani M, Cheruiyot J, Kimani J, Oyugi J, Fowke KR.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2016 Oct/Nov;32(10-11):1072-1078. Epub 2016 Mar 16.


Elevated expression of LAG-3, but not PD-1, is associated with impaired iNKT cytokine production during chronic HIV-1 infection and treatment.

Juno JA, Stalker AT, Waruk JL, Oyugi J, Kimani M, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Fowke KR.

Retrovirology. 2015 Feb 13;12:17. doi: 10.1186/s12977-015-0142-z.


Short Communication: Low Expression of Activation and Inhibitory Molecules on NK Cells and CD4(+) T Cells Is Associated with Viral Control.

Taborda NA, Hernández JC, Lajoie J, Juno JA, Kimani J, Rugeles MT, Fowke KR.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2015 Jun;31(6):636-40. doi: 10.1089/AID.2014.0325. Epub 2015 Mar 31.


Mx2 expression is associated with reduced susceptibility to HIV infection in highly exposed HIV seronegative Kenyan sex workers.

Stein DR, Shaw SY, McKinnon LR, Abou M, McCorrister SJ, Westmacott GR, Fowke KR, Plummer FA, Ball TB.

AIDS. 2015 Jan 2;29(1):35-41. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000490.


Development of polyether urethane intravaginal rings for the sustained delivery of hydroxychloroquine.

Chen Y, Traore YL, Li A, Fowke KR, Ho EA.

Drug Des Devel Ther. 2014 Oct 9;8:1801-15. doi: 10.2147/DDDT.S71352. eCollection 2014.


Enrichment of LAG-3, but not PD-1, on double negative T cells at the female genital tract.

Juno JA, Lajoie J, Stalker AT, Oyugi J, Kimani M, Kimani J, Plummer FA, Fowke KR.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2014 Dec;72(6):534-40. doi: 10.1111/aji.12308. Epub 2014 Aug 25.


Collection, isolation, and flow cytometric analysis of human endocervical samples.

Juno JA, Boily-Larouche G, Lajoie J, Fowke KR.

J Vis Exp. 2014 Jul 6;(89). doi: 10.3791/51906.


Association of sex work with reduced activation of the mucosal immune system.

Lajoie J, Kimani M, Plummer FA, Nyamiobo F, Kaul R, Kimani J, Fowke KR.

J Infect Dis. 2014 Jul 15;210(2):319-29. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiu023. Epub 2014 Jan 12.


Immune quiescence: a model of protection against HIV infection.

Card CM, Ball TB, Fowke KR.

Retrovirology. 2013 Nov 20;10:141. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-10-141. Review.


The role of polymorphisms in host immune genes in determining the severity of respiratory illness caused by pandemic H1N1 influenza.

Keynan Y, Malik S, Fowke KR.

Public Health Genomics. 2013;16(1-2):9-16. doi: 10.1159/000345937. Epub 2013 Mar 18. Review.


Reduced cellular susceptibility to in vitro HIV infection is associated with CD4+ T cell quiescence.

Card CM, Rutherford WJ, Ramdahin S, Yao X, Kimani M, Wachihi C, Kimani J, Plummer FA, Ball TB, Fowke KR.

PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45911. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045911. Epub 2012 Sep 21.


Invariant NKT cells: regulation and function during viral infection.

Juno JA, Keynan Y, Fowke KR.

PLoS Pathog. 2012;8(8):e1002838. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002838. Epub 2012 Aug 16. Review.


Selection, phenotyping and identification of acid and hydrogen peroxide producing bacteria from vaginal samples of Canadian and East African women.

Schellenberg JJ, Dumonceaux TJ, Hill JE, Kimani J, Jaoko W, Wachihi C, Mungai JN, Lane M, Fowke KR, Ball TB, Plummer FA.

PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41217. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041217. Epub 2012 Jul 23.


Cytomegalovirus, aging, and HIV: a perfect storm.

Barrett L, Fowke KR, Grant MD.

AIDS Rev. 2012 Jul-Sep;14(3):159-67. Review.


Evaluation of influenza-specific humoral response by microbead array analysis.

Keynan Y, Bodnarchuk T, Wayne S, Li Y, Fowke KR.

Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol. 2011 Spring;22(1):25-9.


A distinct cytokine and chemokine profile at the genital mucosa is associated with HIV-1 protection among HIV-exposed seronegative commercial sex workers.

Lajoie J, Juno J, Burgener A, Rahman S, Mogk K, Wachihi C, Mwanjewe J, Plummer FA, Kimani J, Ball TB, Fowke KR.

Mucosal Immunol. 2012 May;5(3):277-87. doi: 10.1038/mi.2012.7. Epub 2012 Feb 8.


HIV controllers are distinguished by chemokine expression profile and HIV-specific T-cell proliferative potential.

Card CM, Keynan Y, Lajoie J, Bell CP, Dawood M, Becker M, Kasper K, Fowke KR.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Apr 15;59(5):427-37. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3182454fcd.


The role of G protein gene GNB3 C825T polymorphism in HIV-1 acquisition, progression and immune activation.

Juno J, Tuff J, Choi R, Card C, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Koesters-Kiazyk S, Ball TB, Farquhar C, Plummer FA, John-Stewart G, Luo M, Fowke KR.

Retrovirology. 2012 Jan 3;9:1. doi: 10.1186/1742-4690-9-1.


Immunogenetic factors associated with severe respiratory illness caused by zoonotic H1N1 and H5N1 influenza viruses.

Juno J, Fowke KR, Keynan Y.

Clin Dev Immunol. 2012;2012:797180. doi: 10.1155/2012/797180. Epub 2011 Nov 3. Review.


Bacterial vaginosis, HIV serostatus and T-cell subset distribution in a cohort of East African commercial sex workers: retrospective analysis.

Schellenberg JJ, Card CM, Ball TB, Mungai JN, Irungu E, Kimani J, Jaoko W, Wachihi C, Fowke KR, Plummer FA.

AIDS. 2012 Jan 28;26(3):387-93. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32834ed7f0.


High level of soluble HLA-G in the female genital tract of Beninese commercial sex workers is associated with HIV-1 infection.

Thibodeau V, Lajoie J, Labbé AC, Zannou MD, Fowke KR, Alary M, Poudrier J, Roger M.

PLoS One. 2011;6(9):e25185. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025185. Epub 2011 Sep 23.


C868T single nucleotide polymorphism and HIV type 1 disease progression among postpartum women in Kenya.

Choi RY, Fowke KR, Juno J, Lohman-Payne B, Oyugi JO, Brown ER, Bosire R, John-Stewart G, Farquhar C.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Jun;28(6):566-70. doi: 10.1089/AID.2011.0095. Epub 2011 Sep 27.


HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell proliferation is prospectively associated with delayed disease progression.

McKinnon LR, Kaul R, Kimani J, Nagelkerke NJ, Wachihi C, Fowke KR, Ball TB, Plummer FA.

Immunol Cell Biol. 2012 Mar;90(3):346-51. doi: 10.1038/icb.2011.44. Epub 2011 May 24.


Molecular definition of vaginal microbiota in East African commercial sex workers.

Schellenberg JJ, Links MG, Hill JE, Dumonceaux TJ, Kimani J, Jaoko W, Wachihi C, Mungai JN, Peters GA, Tyler S, Graham M, Severini A, Fowke KR, Ball TB, Plummer FA.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 Jun;77(12):4066-74. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02943-10. Epub 2011 Apr 29.


Targeting the chemokine receptor CCR5: good for HIV, what about other viruses?

Keynan Y, Juno J, Kasper K, Rubinstein E, Fowke KR.

J Infect Dis. 2011 Jan 15;203(2):292; author reply 293. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiq032. No abstract available.


HIV‐exposed seronegative commercial sex workers show a quiescent phenotype in the CD4+ T cell compartment and reduced expression of HIV‐dependent host factors.

McLaren PJ, Ball TB, Wachihi C, Jaoko W, Kelvin DJ, Danesh A, Kimani J, Plummer FA, Fowke KR.

J Infect Dis. 2010 Nov 1;202 Suppl 3:S339-44. doi: 10.1086/655968.


International symposium on natural immunity to HIV: a gathering of the HIV‐exposed seronegative clan.

Meyers AF, Fowke KR.

J Infect Dis. 2010 Nov 1;202 Suppl 3:S327-8. doi: 10.1086/655975.


Chemokine receptor 5 △32 allele in patients with severe pandemic (H1N1) 2009.

Keynan Y, Juno J, Meyers A, Ball TB, Kumar A, Rubinstein E, Fowke KR.

Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Oct;16(10):1621-2. doi: 10.3201/eid1610.100108.


Clarifying the role of G protein signaling in HIV infection: new approaches to an old question.

Juno JA, Fowke KR.

AIDS Rev. 2010 Jul-Sep;12(3):164-76. Review.


Cellular immune responses to recurring influenza strains have limited boosting ability and limited cross-reactivity to other strains.

Keynan Y, Card CM, Ball BT, Li Y, Plummer FA, Fowke KR.

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010 Aug;16(8):1179-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2010.03142.x.


Clade-specific evolution mediated by HLA-B*57/5801 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade A1 p24.

McKinnon LR, Capina R, Peters H, Mendoza M, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Kariri A, Kimani M, Richmond M, Kiazyk SK, Fowke KR, Jaoko W, Luo M, Ball TB, Plummer FA.

J Virol. 2009 Dec;83(23):12636-42. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01236-09. Epub 2009 Sep 16.


Epitope mapping of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in a cohort dominated by clade A1 infection.

McKinnon LR, Mao X, Kimani J, Wachihi C, Semeniuk C, Mendoza M, Liang B, Luo M, Fowke KR, Plummer FA, Ball TB.

PLoS One. 2009 Sep 11;4(9):e6965. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0006965.


Decreased immune activation in resistance to HIV-1 infection is associated with an elevated frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells.

Card CM, McLaren PJ, Wachihi C, Kimani J, Plummer FA, Fowke KR.

J Infect Dis. 2009 May 1;199(9):1318-22. doi: 10.1086/597801.


A common CD4 gene variant is associated with an increased risk of HIV-1 infection in Kenyan female commercial sex workers.

Oyugi JO, Vouriot FC, Alimonti J, Wayne S, Luo M, Land AM, Ao Z, Yao X, Sekaly RP, Elliott LJ, Simonsen JN, Ball TB, Jaoko W, Kimani J, Plummer FA, Fowke KR.

J Infect Dis. 2009 May 1;199(9):1327-34. doi: 10.1086/597616.


Loss of CD127 expression links immune activation and CD4(+) T cell loss in HIV infection.

Kiazyk SA, Fowke KR.

Trends Microbiol. 2008 Dec;16(12):567-73. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2008.08.011. Epub 2008 Oct 27.


Substantial intrapatient differences in the breadth and specificity of HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell interferon-gamma and proliferation responses.

McKinnon LR, Ball TB, Wachihi C, Chinga N, Maingi A, Luo M, Fowke KR, Plummer FA.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Oct 1;49(2):123-7. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181869a88.


The role of regulatory T cells in chronic and acute viral infections.

Keynan Y, Card CM, McLaren PJ, Dawood MR, Kasper K, Fowke KR.

Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 1;46(7):1046-52. doi: 10.1086/529379. Review.


Reduced rates of HIV acquisition during unprotected sex by Kenyan female sex workers predating population declines in HIV prevalence.

Kimani J, Kaul R, Nagelkerke NJ, Luo M, MacDonald KS, Ngugi E, Fowke KR, Ball BT, Kariri A, Ndinya-Achola J, Plummer FA.

AIDS. 2008 Jan 2;22(1):131-7.


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