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The recent emergence of a highly related virulent Clostridium difficile clade with unique characteristics.

Shaw HA, Preston MD, Vendrik KEW, Cairns MD, Browne HP, Stabler RA, Crobach MJT, Corver J, Pituch H, Ingebretsen A, Pirmohamed M, Faulds-Pain A, Valiente E, Lawley TD, Fairweather NF, Kuijper EJ, Wren BW.

Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019 Sep 13. pii: S1198-743X(19)30489-6. doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2019.09.004. [Epub ahead of print]


The S-layer protein of a Clostridium difficile SLCT-11 strain displays a complex glycan required for normal cell growth and morphology.

Richards E, Bouché L, Panico M, Arbeloa A, Vinogradov E, Morris H, Wren B, Logan SM, Dell A, Fairweather NF.

J Biol Chem. 2018 Nov 23;293(47):18123-18137. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.004530. Epub 2018 Oct 1.


Clostridium sordellii Pathogenicity Locus Plasmid pCS1-1 Encodes a Novel Clostridial Conjugation Locus.

Vidor CJ, Watts TD, Adams V, Bulach D, Couchman E, Rood JI, Fairweather NF, Awad M, Lyras D.

mBio. 2018 Jan 16;9(1). pii: e01761-17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01761-17.


Disparate subcellular location of putative sortase substrates in Clostridium difficile.

Peltier J, Shaw HA, Wren BW, Fairweather NF.

Sci Rep. 2017 Aug 23;7(1):9204. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-08322-1.


Lighting Up Clostridium Difficile: Reporting Gene Expression Using Fluorescent Lov Domains.

Buckley AM, Jukes C, Candlish D, Irvine JJ, Spencer J, Fagan RP, Roe AJ, Christie JM, Fairweather NF, Douce GR.

Sci Rep. 2016 Mar 21;6:23463. doi: 10.1038/srep23463.


The SpoIIQ-SpoIIIAH complex of Clostridium difficile controls forespore engulfment and late stages of gene expression and spore morphogenesis.

Serrano M, Crawshaw AD, Dembek M, Monteiro JM, Pereira FC, Pinho MG, Fairweather NF, Salgado PS, Henriques AO.

Mol Microbiol. 2016 Apr;100(1):204-28. doi: 10.1111/mmi.13311. Epub 2016 Feb 12.


Increased toxin expression in a Clostridium difficile mfd mutant.

Willing SE, Richards EJ, Sempere L, Dale AG, Cutting SM, Fairweather NF.

BMC Microbiol. 2015 Dec 18;15:280. doi: 10.1186/s12866-015-0611-5.


Quantitative Lipoproteomics in Clostridium difficile Reveals a Role for Lipoproteins in Sporulation.

Charlton TM, Kovacs-Simon A, Michell SL, Fairweather NF, Tate EW.

Chem Biol. 2015 Nov 19;22(11):1562-1573. doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2015.10.006. Epub 2015 Nov 12.


Cyclic diGMP regulates production of sortase substrates of Clostridium difficile and their surface exposure through ZmpI protease-mediated cleavage.

Peltier J, Shaw HA, Couchman EC, Dawson LF, Yu L, Choudhary JS, Kaever V, Wren BW, Fairweather NF.

J Biol Chem. 2015 Oct 2;290(40):24453-69. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.665091. Epub 2015 Aug 17.


The Clostridium difficile cell wall protein CwpV confers phase-variable phage resistance.

Sekulovic O, Ospina Bedoya M, Fivian-Hughes AS, Fairweather NF, Fortier LC.

Mol Microbiol. 2015 Oct;98(2):329-42. doi: 10.1111/mmi.13121. Epub 2015 Aug 8.


Clostridium sordellii genome analysis reveals plasmid localized toxin genes encoded within pathogenicity loci.

Couchman EC, Browne HP, Dunn M, Lawley TD, Songer JG, Hall V, Petrovska L, Vidor C, Awad M, Lyras D, Fairweather NF.

BMC Genomics. 2015 May 16;16:392. doi: 10.1186/s12864-015-1613-2.


High-throughput analysis of gene essentiality and sporulation in Clostridium difficile.

Dembek M, Barquist L, Boinett CJ, Cain AK, Mayho M, Lawley TD, Fairweather NF, Fagan RP.

mBio. 2015 Feb 24;6(2):e02383. doi: 10.1128/mBio.02383-14.


Clostridium difficile surface proteins are anchored to the cell wall using CWB2 motifs that recognise the anionic polymer PSII.

Willing SE, Candela T, Shaw HA, Seager Z, Mesnage S, Fagan RP, Fairweather NF.

Mol Microbiol. 2015 May;96(3):596-608. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12958. Epub 2015 Mar 6.


The spore-associated protein BclA1 affects the susceptibility of animals to colonization and infection by Clostridium difficile.

Phetcharaburanin J, Hong HA, Colenutt C, Bianconi I, Sempere L, Permpoonpattana P, Smith K, Dembek M, Tan S, Brisson MC, Brisson AR, Fairweather NF, Cutting SM.

Mol Microbiol. 2014 Jun;92(5):1025-38. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12611. Epub 2014 Apr 24.


Biogenesis and functions of bacterial S-layers.

Fagan RP, Fairweather NF.

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2014 Mar;12(3):211-22. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3213. Epub 2014 Feb 10. Review.


Transcriptional analysis of temporal gene expression in germinating Clostridium difficile 630 endospores.

Dembek M, Stabler RA, Witney AA, Wren BW, Fairweather NF.

PLoS One. 2013 May 15;8(5):e64011. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064011. Print 2013.


CbpA: a novel surface exposed adhesin of Clostridium difficile targeting human collagen.

Tulli L, Marchi S, Petracca R, Shaw HA, Fairweather NF, Scarselli M, Soriani M, Leuzzi R.

Cell Microbiol. 2013 Oct;15(10):1674-87. doi: 10.1111/cmi.12139. Epub 2013 Apr 11.


The Clostridium difficile spo0A gene is a persistence and transmission factor.

Deakin LJ, Clare S, Fagan RP, Dawson LF, Pickard DJ, West MR, Wren BW, Fairweather NF, Dougan G, Lawley TD.

Infect Immun. 2012 Aug;80(8):2704-11. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00147-12. Epub 2012 May 21.


A single-dose cytomegalovirus-based vaccine encoding tetanus toxin fragment C induces sustained levels of protective tetanus toxin antibodies in mice.

Tierney R, Nakai T, Parkins CJ, Caposio P, Fairweather NF, Sesardic D, Jarvis MA.

Vaccine. 2012 Apr 26;30(20):3047-52. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.02.043. Epub 2012 Mar 10.


Clostridium difficile cell wall protein CwpV undergoes enzyme-independent intramolecular autoproteolysis.

Dembek M, Reynolds CB, Fairweather NF.

J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 6;287(2):1538-44. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.302463. Epub 2011 Nov 28.


Novel inhibitors of surface layer processing in Clostridium difficile.

Tam Dang TH, Fagan RP, Fairweather NF, Tate EW.

Bioorg Med Chem. 2012 Jan 15;20(2):614-21. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2011.06.042. Epub 2011 Jun 21.


Clostridium difficile has two parallel and essential Sec secretion systems.

Fagan RP, Fairweather NF.

J Biol Chem. 2011 Aug 5;286(31):27483-93. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.263889. Epub 2011 Jun 9.


The Clostridium difficile cell wall protein CwpV is antigenically variable between strains, but exhibits conserved aggregation-promoting function.

Reynolds CB, Emerson JE, de la Riva L, Fagan RP, Fairweather NF.

PLoS Pathog. 2011 Apr;7(4):e1002024. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002024. Epub 2011 Apr 21.


Roles of cysteine proteases Cwp84 and Cwp13 in biogenesis of the cell wall of Clostridium difficile.

de la Riva L, Willing SE, Tate EW, Fairweather NF.

J Bacteriol. 2011 Jul;193(13):3276-85. doi: 10.1128/JB.00248-11. Epub 2011 Apr 29.


Immunization with Bacillus spores expressing toxin A peptide repeats protects against infection with Clostridium difficile strains producing toxins A and B.

Permpoonpattana P, Hong HA, Phetcharaburanin J, Huang JM, Cook J, Fairweather NF, Cutting SM.

Infect Immun. 2011 Jun;79(6):2295-302. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00130-11. Epub 2011 Apr 11.


A proposed nomenclature for cell wall proteins of Clostridium difficile.

Fagan RP, Janoir C, Collignon A, Mastrantonio P, Poxton IR, Fairweather NF.

J Med Microbiol. 2011 Aug;60(Pt 8):1225-8. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.028472-0. Epub 2011 Jan 20.


Characterisation of a panel of anti-tetanus toxin single-chain Fvs reveals cooperative binding.

Scott N, Qazi O, Wright MJ, Fairweather NF, Deonarain MP.

Mol Immunol. 2010 Jun;47(10):1931-41. doi: 10.1016/j.molimm.2010.02.020. Epub 2010 Apr 22.


Four distinct structural domains in Clostridium difficile toxin B visualized using SAXS.

Albesa-Jové D, Bertrand T, Carpenter EP, Swain GV, Lim J, Zhang J, Haire LF, Vasisht N, Braun V, Lange A, von Eichel-Streiber C, Svergun DI, Fairweather NF, Brown KA.

J Mol Biol. 2010 Mar 12;396(5):1260-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2010.01.012. Epub 2010 Jan 11.


Chemical probes of surface layer biogenesis in Clostridium difficile.

Dang TH, de la Riva L, Fagan RP, Storck EM, Heal WP, Janoir C, Fairweather NF, Tate EW.

ACS Chem Biol. 2010 Mar 19;5(3):279-85. doi: 10.1021/cb9002859.


Distinctive profiles of infection and pathology in hamsters infected with Clostridium difficile strains 630 and B1.

Goulding D, Thompson H, Emerson J, Fairweather NF, Dougan G, Douce GR.

Infect Immun. 2009 Dec;77(12):5478-85. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00551-09. Epub 2009 Sep 14.


A novel genetic switch controls phase variable expression of CwpV, a Clostridium difficile cell wall protein.

Emerson JE, Reynolds CB, Fagan RP, Shaw HA, Goulding D, Fairweather NF.

Mol Microbiol. 2009 Nov;74(3):541-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06812.x. Epub 2009 Jul 28.


Antibiotic treatment of clostridium difficile carrier mice triggers a supershedder state, spore-mediated transmission, and severe disease in immunocompromised hosts.

Lawley TD, Clare S, Walker AW, Goulding D, Stabler RA, Croucher N, Mastroeni P, Scott P, Raisen C, Mottram L, Fairweather NF, Wren BW, Parkhill J, Dougan G.

Infect Immun. 2009 Sep;77(9):3661-9. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00558-09. Epub 2009 Jun 29.


Structural insights into the molecular organization of the S-layer from Clostridium difficile.

Fagan RP, Albesa-Jové D, Qazi O, Svergun DI, Brown KA, Fairweather NF.

Mol Microbiol. 2009 Mar;71(5):1308-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2009.06603.x. Epub 2009 Jan 29.


Microarray analysis of the transcriptional responses of Clostridium difficile to environmental and antibiotic stress.

Emerson JE, Stabler RA, Wren BW, Fairweather NF.

J Med Microbiol. 2008 Jun;57(Pt 6):757-64. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.47657-0.


Immunoreactive cell wall proteins of Clostridium difficile identified by human sera.

Wright A, Drudy D, Kyne L, Brown K, Fairweather NF.

J Med Microbiol. 2008 Jun;57(Pt 6):750-6. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.47532-0.


The multidrug-resistant human pathogen Clostridium difficile has a highly mobile, mosaic genome.

Sebaihia M, Wren BW, Mullany P, Fairweather NF, Minton N, Stabler R, Thomson NR, Roberts AP, Cerdeño-Tárraga AM, Wang H, Holden MT, Wright A, Churcher C, Quail MA, Baker S, Bason N, Brooks K, Chillingworth T, Cronin A, Davis P, Dowd L, Fraser A, Feltwell T, Hance Z, Holroyd S, Jagels K, Moule S, Mungall K, Price C, Rabbinowitsch E, Sharp S, Simmonds M, Stevens K, Unwin L, Whithead S, Dupuy B, Dougan G, Barrell B, Parkhill J.

Nat Genet. 2006 Jul;38(7):779-86. Epub 2006 Jun 25.


Immunization does not interfere with uptake and transport by motor neurons of the binding fragment of tetanus toxin.

Fishman PS, Matthews CC, Parks DA, Box M, Fairweather NF.

J Neurosci Res. 2006 Jun;83(8):1540-3.


Functional characterization of OXA-57, a class D beta-lactamase from Burkholderia pseudomallei.

Keith KE, Oyston PC, Crossett B, Fairweather NF, Titball RW, Walsh TR, Brown KA.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Apr;49(4):1639-41.


Revised nomenclature of Clostridium difficile toxins and associated genes.

Rupnik M, Dupuy B, Fairweather NF, Gerding DN, Johnson S, Just I, Lyerly DM, Popoff MR, Rood JI, Sonenshein AL, Thelestam M, Wren BW, Wilkins TD, von Eichel-Streiber C.

J Med Microbiol. 2005 Feb;54(Pt 2):113-7.


A multi-domain protein system based on the HC fragment of tetanus toxin for targeting DNA to neuronal cells.

Box M, Parks DA, Knight A, Hale C, Fishman PS, Fairweather NF.

J Drug Target. 2003 Jul;11(6):333-43.


Vaccination against type F botulinum toxin using attenuated Salmonella enterica var Typhimurium strains expressing the BoNT/F H(C) fragment.

Foynes S, Holley JL, Garmory HS, Titball RW, Fairweather NF.

Vaccine. 2003 Mar 7;21(11-12):1052-9.


Binding of Clostridium difficile surface layer proteins to gastrointestinal tissues.

Calabi E, Calabi F, Phillips AD, Fairweather NF.

Infect Immun. 2002 Oct;70(10):5770-8.


The crystal structure of tetanus toxin Hc fragment complexed with a synthetic GT1b analogue suggests cross-linking between ganglioside receptors and the toxin.

Fotinou C, Emsley P, Black I, Ando H, Ishida H, Kiso M, Sinha KA, Fairweather NF, Isaacs NW.

J Biol Chem. 2001 Aug 24;276(34):32274-81. Epub 2001 Jun 19.


Interaction of tetanus toxin derived hybrid proteins with neuronal cells.

Figueiredo DM, Matthews CC, Parks DA, Fairweather NF, Dougan G, Wilt SG, Fishman PS.

J Nat Toxins. 2000 Nov;9(4):363-79.


Retargeting of adenoviral vectors to neurons using the Hc fragment of tetanus toxin.

Schneider H, Groves M, Mühle C, Reynolds PN, Knight A, Themis M, Carvajal J, Scaravilli F, Curiel DT, Fairweather NF, Coutelle C.

Gene Ther. 2000 Sep;7(18):1584-92.


Protective effect of supplemental superoxide dismutase on survival of neuronal cells during starvation. Requirement for cytosolic distribution.

Matthews CC, Figueiredo DM, Wollack JB, Fairweather NF, Dougan G, Hallewell RA, Cadet JL, Fishman PS.

J Mol Neurosci. 2000 Jun;14(3):155-66.


The structures of the H(C) fragment of tetanus toxin with carbohydrate subunit complexes provide insight into ganglioside binding.

Emsley P, Fotinou C, Black I, Fairweather NF, Charles IG, Watts C, Hewitt E, Isaacs NW.

J Biol Chem. 2000 Mar 24;275(12):8889-94.


Modulation by epitope-specific antibodies of class II MHC-restricted presentation of the tetanus toxin antigen.

Watts C, Antoniou A, Manoury B, Hewitt EW, Mckay LM, Grayson L, Fairweather NF, Emsley P, Isaacs N, Simitsek PD.

Immunol Rev. 1998 Aug;164:11-6. Review.


Delivery of recombinant tetanus-superoxide dismutase proteins to central nervous system neurons by retrograde axonal transport.

Figueiredo DM, Hallewell RA, Chen LL, Fairweather NF, Dougan G, Savitt JM, Parks DA, Fishman PS.

Exp Neurol. 1997 Jun;145(2 Pt 1):546-54.


Structure of Bordetella pertussis virulence factor P.69 pertactin.

Emsley P, Charles IG, Fairweather NF, Isaacs NW.

Nature. 1996 May 2;381(6577):90-2.


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