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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Apr 25;63(5). pii: e00054-19. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00054-19. Print 2019 May.

A Systematic Screen Reveals a Diverse Collection of Medications That Induce Antifungal Resistance in Candida Species.

Author information

1
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
2
Department of Molecular Immunology and Biochemistry, College of Graduate Health Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.
3
Department of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Medical Center, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA.
4
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA gpalmer5@uthsc.edu.

Abstract

The increasing incidence of and high mortality rates associated with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) impose an enormous clinical, social, and economic burden on humankind. In addition to microbiological resistance to existing antifungal drugs, the large number of unexplained treatment failures is a serious concern. Due to the extremely limited therapeutic options available, it is critical to identify and understand the various causes of treatment failure if patient outcomes are to improve. In this study, we examined one potential source of treatment failure: antagonistic drug interactions. Using a simple screen, we systematically identified currently approved medications that undermine the antifungal activity of three major antifungal drugs-fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B-on four prevalent human fungal pathogens-Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida tropicalis This revealed that a diverse collection of structurally distinct drugs exhibit antagonistic interactions with fluconazole. Several antagonistic agents selected for follow-up studies induce azole resistance through a mechanism that depends on Tac1p/Pdr1p zinc-cluster transcription factors, which activate the expression of drug efflux pumps belonging to the ABC-type transporter family. Few antagonistic interactions were identified with caspofungin or amphotericin B, possibly reflecting their cell surface mode of action that should not be affected by drug efflux mechanisms. Given that patients at greatest risk of IFIs usually receive a multitude of drugs to treat various underlying conditions, these studies suggest that chemically inducible azole resistance may be much more common and important than previously realized.

KEYWORDS:

Candida ; Cdr1p; Tac1p; Upc2p; amphotericin B; antagonism; antifungal; azoles; echinocandins; resistance

PMID:
30858206
PMCID:
PMC6496105
[Available on 2019-10-25]
DOI:
10.1128/AAC.00054-19

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