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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 22;104(21):8947-52. Epub 2007 May 15.

Vaccination with NY-ESO-1 protein and CpG in Montanide induces integrated antibody/Th1 responses and CD8 T cells through cross-priming.

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Ludwig Institute Clinical Trial Center, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA.


The use of recombinant tumor antigen proteins is a realistic approach for the development of generic cancer vaccines, but the potential of this type of vaccines to induce specific CD8(+) T cell responses, through in vivo cross-priming, has remained unclear. In this article, we report that repeated vaccination of cancer patients with recombinant NY-ESO-1 protein, Montanide ISA-51, and CpG ODN 7909, a potent stimulator of B cells and T helper type 1 (Th1)-type immunity, resulted in the early induction of specific integrated CD4(+) Th cells and antibody responses in most vaccinated patients, followed by the development of later CD8(+) T cell responses in a fraction of them. The correlation between antibody and T cell responses, together with the ability of vaccine-induced antibodies to promote in vitro cross-presentation of NY-ESO-1 by dendritic cells to vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells, indicated that elicitation of NY-ESO-1-specific CD8(+) T cell responses by cross-priming in vivo was associated with the induction of adequate levels of specific antibodies. Together, our data provide clear evidence of in vivo cross-priming of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by a recombinant tumor antigen vaccine, underline the importance of specific antibody induction for the cross-priming to occur, and support the use of this type of formulation for the further development of efficient cancer vaccines.

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