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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Oct 31;114(44):E9413-E9422. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1708621114. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Genome of wild olive and the evolution of oil biosynthesis.

Author information

1
İzmir International Biomedicine and Genome Institute, Dokuz Eylül University, 35340 İzmir, Turkey; turgayunver@icloud.com marc.vanmontagu@ugent.be yves.vandepeer@psb.vib-ugent.be.
2
BGI Shenzhen, 518038 Shenzhen, China.
3
Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, 9052 Ghent, Belgium.
4
Center for Plant Systems Biology, VIB, 9052 Ghent, Belgium.
5
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Cankiri Karatekin University, 18100 Cankiri, Turkey.
6
Plataforma de Genómica y Bioinformática de Andalucía, 41013 Sevilla, Spain.
7
Biotechvana, 46980 Paterna (Valencia), Spain.
8
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60250 Tokat, Turkey.
9
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Balikesir University, 10145 Balikesir, Turkey.
10
Department of Biology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC 27858.
11
Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Ankara University, 06120 Ankara, Turkey.
12
Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Science, Mustafa Kemal University, 31060 Hatay, Turkey.
13
Laboratory of Plant Physiology, University Mohamed V, 10102 Rabat, Morocco.
14
Polydisciplinary Faculty of Nador, University Mohamed Premier, 62700 Nador, Morocco.
15
Department of Plant, Soil and Agricultural Systems, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901.
16
Institute for Research and Medical Consultation, University of Dammam, 34212 Dammam, Saudi Arabia.
17
Instituto de Agricultura Sostenible, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 14004 Córdoba, Spain.
18
Olive Research Institute of Bornova, 35100 Izmir, Turkey.
19
Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, 9052 Ghent, Belgium; turgayunver@icloud.com marc.vanmontagu@ugent.be yves.vandepeer@psb.vib-ugent.be.
20
Departamento Bioquímica y Biología Molecular, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain.
21
Department of Genetics, Genomics Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028, South Africa.

Abstract

Here we present the genome sequence and annotation of the wild olive tree (Olea europaea var. sylvestris), called oleaster, which is considered an ancestor of cultivated olive trees. More than 50,000 protein-coding genes were predicted, a majority of which could be anchored to 23 pseudochromosomes obtained through a newly constructed genetic map. The oleaster genome contains signatures of two Oleaceae lineage-specific paleopolyploidy events, dated at ∼28 and ∼59 Mya. These events contributed to the expansion and neofunctionalization of genes and gene families that play important roles in oil biosynthesis. The functional divergence of oil biosynthesis pathway genes, such as FAD2, SACPD, EAR, and ACPTE, following duplication, has been responsible for the differential accumulation of oleic and linoleic acids produced in olive compared with sesame, a closely related oil crop. Duplicated oleaster FAD2 genes are regulated by an siRNA derived from a transposable element-rich region, leading to suppressed levels of FAD2 gene expression. Additionally, neofunctionalization of members of the SACPD gene family has led to increased expression of SACPD2, 3, 5, and 7, consequently resulting in an increased desaturation of steric acid. Taken together, decreased FAD2 expression and increased SACPD expression likely explain the accumulation of exceptionally high levels of oleic acid in olive. The oleaster genome thus provides important insights into the evolution of oil biosynthesis and will be a valuable resource for oil crop genomics.

KEYWORDS:

fatty-acid biosynthesis; oil crop; polyunsaturated fatty-acid pathway; siRNA regulation; whole-genome duplication

PMID:
29078332
PMCID:
PMC5676908
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1708621114
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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