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Development. 2008 Apr;135(8):1481-91. doi: 10.1242/dev.020255. Epub 2008 Mar 13.

Direct interaction of AGL24 and SOC1 integrates flowering signals in Arabidopsis.

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Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore.


During the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth, the shoot meristem of flowering plants acquires the inflorescence identity to generate flowers rather than vegetative tissues. An important regulator that promotes the inflorescence identity in Arabidopsis is AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 (AGL24), a MADS-box transcription factor. Using a functional estradiol-inducible system in combination with microarray analysis, we identified AGL24-induced genes, including SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), a floral pathway integrator. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis of a functional AGL24-6HA-tagged line revealed in vivo binding of AGL24-6HA to the regulatory region of SOC1. Mutagenesis of the AGL24 binding site in the SOC1 promoter decreased Pro(SOC1):GUS expression and compromised SOC1 function in promoting flowering. Our results show that SOC1 is one of the direct targets of AGL24, and that SOC1 expression is upregulated by AGL24 at the shoot apex at the floral transitional stage. ChIP assay using a functional SOC1-9myc-tagged line and promoter mutagenesis analysis also revealed in vivo binding of SOC1-9myc to the regulatory regions of AGL24 and upregulation of AGL24 at the shoot apex by SOC1. Furthermore, we found that as in other flowering genetic pathways, the effect of gibberellins on flowering under short-day conditions was mediated by the interaction between AGL24 and SOC1. These observations suggest that during floral transition, a positive-feedback loop conferred by direct transcriptional regulation between AGL24 and SOC1 at the shoot apex integrates flowering signals.

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