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Science. 2014 Dec 19;346(6216):1517-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1257553.

Recovery of large carnivores in Europe's modern human-dominated landscapes.

Author information

1
Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden. gchapron@carnivoreconservation.org guillaume.chapron@slu.se.
2
Research Institute of Wildlife Ecology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, Savoyenstrasse 1, 1160 Vienna, Austria.
3
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Post Office Box 5685 Sluppen, 7485 Trondheim, Norway.
4
KORA, Thunstrasse 31, 3074 Muri bei Bern, Switzerland.
5
Biology Department of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zagreb, Heinzelova 55, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
6
Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden.
7
Grimsö Wildlife Research Station, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 73091 Riddarhyttan, Sweden. Research Unit of Biodiversity (UO/CSIC/PA), Oviedo University, 33600 Mieres, Spain.
8
State Nature Conservancy of Slovak Republic, Tajovskeho 28B, 974 01 Banská Bystrica, Slovakia.
9
CIBIO/InBio, Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Universidade do Porto, 4485-661 Vairão, Portugal.
10
Harz Nationalpark, Lindenallee 35, 38855 Wernigerode, Germany.
11
Nature Research Centre, Akademijos 2, 08412 Vilnius, Lithuania.
12
Association for Nature Conservation "Baltijos vilkas," Visoriu 6A-54, 08300 Vilnius, Lithuania.
13
Slovak Wildlife Society, Post Office Box 72, 03301 Liptovsky Hradok, Slovakia.
14
Biology Department of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Tirana, Boulevard Zog I, Tirana, Albania.
15
Wolf Project, Consultores en Biología de la Conservación, Calle Manuela Malasana 24, 28004 Madrid, Spain.
16
KORA, Thunstrasse 31, 3074 Muri bei Bern, Switzerland. Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Länggassstrasse 122, 3012 Bern, Switzerland.
17
Department of Game Management and Wildlife Biology, Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic.
18
Ministry of Environment of the Republic of Lithuania, Jakšto 4/9, 01105 Vilnius, Lithuania.
19
Department of Biology and Biotechnologies, University of Rome "La Sapienza," Viale dell'Università 32, 00185 Roma, Italy.
20
Balkani Wildlife Society, Boulevard Dragan Tzankov 8, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria.
21
Lynx Project Austria Northwest, Linzerstrasse 14, 4170 Haslach/Mühl, Austria.
22
Nationalpark Kalkalpen, Nationalpark Zentrum Molln, Nationalpark Allee 1, 4591 Molln, Austria.
23
Provincia Autonoma di Trento - Servizio Foreste e Fauna, Via Trener no. 3, 38100 Trento, Italy.
24
Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Viikinkaari 4, 00790 Helsinki, Finland.
25
Protection and Preservation of Natural Environment in Albania, Rruga Vangjush Furxhi 16/1/10, Tirana, Albania.
26
Callisto Wildlife and Nature Conservation Society, Mitropoleos 123, 54621 Thessaloniki, Greece.
27
Faculty of Silviculture and Forest Engineering, Department of Silviculture, Transilvania University, 1 Beethoven Lane, 500123 Brașov, Romania. Forest Research Institute (ICAS) Bulevardul Eroilor Number 128, Voluntari, Ilfov, 077190 Romania.
28
State Institute for Nature Protection, Trg Mažuranića 5, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
29
University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical Faculty, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
30
LUPUS - German Institute for Wolf Mnitoring and Research, Dorfstrasse 20, 02979 Spreewitz, Germany.
31
Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Oulu Game and Fisheries Research, Tutkijantie 2E, 90570 Oulu, Finland.
32
Department of Forest Protection and Game Management, Faculty of Forestry, Technical University of Zvolen, T.G. Masaryka 20, 960 53 Zvolen, Slovakia.
33
Faculty of Forestry, University of Sarajevo, Zagrebačka 20, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
34
Department of Forest Protection and Wildlife Management, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 3, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic. Friends of the Earth Czech Republic, Olomouc Branch, Dolní Náměstí 38, 77900 Olomouc, Czech Republic.
35
Estonian Environment Agency, Rõõmu tee 2, 51013 Tartu, Estonia.
36
Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage, ZI Mayencin, 5 Allée de Béthléem, 38610 Gières, France.
37
Centro Gestione e Conservazione Grandi Carnivori, Piazza Regina Elena 30, Valdieri 12010, Italy.
38
Macedonian Ecological Society, Arhimedova 5, Skopje 1000, FYR Macedonia. Department of Wildlife Sciences, Georg-August University, Büsgenweg 3, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.
39
National Veterinary Epidemiology Unit, Food Safety and Veterinary Institute, Rruga Aleksandër Moisiu 10 Tirana, Albania.
40
Institute of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Pawińskiego 5a, 02-106 Warszawa, Poland.
41
Association for Nature "Wolf," Twardorzeczka 229, 34-324 Lipowa, Poland.
42
Latvian State Forest Research Institute "Silava," Rīgas Iela 111, Salaspils, 2169 Latvia.
43
Fundación Oso Pardo, Calle San Luis 17, 4° A, 39010 Santander, Spain.
44
Natural History Museum, Njegoseva 51, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
45
ONCFS-CNERA PAD, Equipe Ours, Chef de Projet, Impasse de la Chapelle, 31800 Villeneuve de Rivière, France.
46
Istituto di Ecologia Applicata, Via B. Eustachio 10, 00161 Rome, Italy.
47
Macedonian Ecological Society, Arhimedova 5, Skopje 1000, FYR Macedonia.
48
Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Post Office Box 5685 Sluppen, 7485 Trondheim, Norway. Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Postbox 5003, 1432 Ås, Norway.
49
St. István Unversity Institute for Wildlife Conservation, Páter Károly 1, 2103 Gödöllő, Hungary.
50
Friends of the Earth Czech Republic, Olomouc Branch, Dolní Náměstí 38, 77900 Olomouc, Czech Republic.
51
Hedmark University College, Evenstad, 2480 Koppang, Norway.
52
Bavarian Agency of Environment, Hans-Högn-Strasse 12, 95030 Hof/Saale, Germany.
53
Lynx Project Bavaria, Trailling 1a, 93462 Lam, Germany.
54
Department of Zoology and Anthropology, Faculty of Biology/Sofia University "St. Kliment Ohridski," Boulevard Dragan Tzankov 8, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria.

Abstract

The conservation of large carnivores is a formidable challenge for biodiversity conservation. Using a data set on the past and current status of brown bears (Ursus arctos), Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx), gray wolves (Canis lupus), and wolverines (Gulo gulo) in European countries, we show that roughly one-third of mainland Europe hosts at least one large carnivore species, with stable or increasing abundance in most cases in 21st-century records. The reasons for this overall conservation success include protective legislation, supportive public opinion, and a variety of practices making coexistence between large carnivores and people possible. The European situation reveals that large carnivores and people can share the same landscape.

PMID:
25525247
DOI:
10.1126/science.1257553
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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