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Pharmacological Treatment in Forensic Psychiatry-A Systematic Review.

Howner K, Andiné P, Engberg G, Ekström EH, Lindström E, Nilsson M, Radovic S, Hultcrantz M.

Front Psychiatry. 2020 Jan 16;10:963. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00963. eCollection 2019.


Lipopolysaccharide Increases Cortical Kynurenic Acid and Deficits in Reference Memory in Mice.

Peyton L, Oliveros A, Tufvesson-Alm M, Schwieler L, Starski P, Engberg G, Erhardt S, Choi DS.

Int J Tryptophan Res. 2019 Dec 17;12:1178646919891169. doi: 10.1177/1178646919891169. eCollection 2019.


Twin study shows association between monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid.

Johansson V, Erhardt S, Engberg G, Kegel M, Bhat M, Schwieler L, Blennow K, Zetterberg H, Cannon TD, Wetterberg L, Hultman CM, Landén M.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2019 Jul 13. doi: 10.1007/s00406-019-01042-9. [Epub ahead of print]


Neurogranin as a potential synaptic marker in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with a first episode psychosis.

Santillo AF, Lundgren S, Xu C, Orhan F, Fatouros-Bergman H, Blennow K, Zetterberg H, Portelius E; Karolinska Schizophrenia Project (KaSP) Consortium, Cervenka S, Jönsson EG, Erhardt S, Engberg G.

Schizophr Res. 2019 Jun;208:490-492. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2019.01.010. Epub 2019 Feb 4. No abstract available.


Peripheral and central levels of kynurenic acid in bipolar disorder subjects and healthy controls.

Sellgren CM, Gracias J, Jungholm O, Perlis RH, Engberg G, Schwieler L, Landen M, Erhardt S.

Transl Psychiatry. 2019 Jan 29;9(1):37. doi: 10.1038/s41398-019-0378-9.


Increased peripheral levels of TARC/CCL17 in first episode psychosis patients.

Malmqvist A, Schwieler L, Orhan F, Fatouros-Bergman H, Bauer M, Flyckt L, Cervenka S, Engberg G, Piehl F; Karolinska Schizophrenia Project (KaSP) consortium, Erhardt S.

Schizophr Res. 2019 Aug;210:221-227. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2018.12.033. Epub 2019 Jan 3.


Increased number of monocytes and plasma levels of MCP-1 and YKL-40 in first-episode psychosis.

Orhan F, Schwieler L, Fatouros-Bergman H, Malmqvist A, Cervenka S, Collste K, Flyckt L, Farde L, Sellgren CM, Piehl F; Karolinska Schizophrenia Project (KaSP) Consortium, Engberg G, Erhardt S.

Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2018 Nov;138(5):432-440. doi: 10.1111/acps.12944. Epub 2018 Aug 21.


Importance of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase for spontaneous firing and pharmacological responses of midbrain dopamine neurons: Relevance for schizophrenia.

Tufvesson-Alm M, Schwieler L, Schwarcz R, Goiny M, Erhardt S, Engberg G.

Neuropharmacology. 2018 Aug;138:130-139. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.06.003. Epub 2018 Jun 5.


LPS-induced cortical kynurenic acid and neurogranin-NFAT signaling is associated with deficits in stimulus processing during Pavlovian conditioning.

Oliveros A, Wininger K, Sens J, Larsson MK, Liu XC, Choi S, Faka A, Schwieler L, Engberg G, Erhardt S, Choi DS.

J Neuroimmunol. 2017 Dec 15;313:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2017.09.010. Epub 2017 Sep 28.


First-episode psychosis patients display increased plasma IL-18 that correlates with cognitive dysfunction.

Orhan F, Fatouros-Bergman H, Schwieler L, Cervenka S, Flyckt L, Sellgren CM; Karolinska Schizophrenia Project (KaSP) consortium, Engberg G, Erhardt S.

Schizophr Res. 2018 May;195:406-408. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2017.09.016. Epub 2017 Sep 23. No abstract available.


Investigation of Parent Austenite Grains from Martensite Structure Using EBSD in a Wear Resistant Steel.

Gyhlesten Back J, Engberg G.

Materials (Basel). 2017 Apr 26;10(5). pii: E453. doi: 10.3390/ma10050453.


Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenine and kynurenic acid concentrations are associated with coma duration and long-term neurocognitive impairment in Ugandan children with cerebral malaria.

Holmberg D, Franzén-Röhl E, Idro R, Opoka RO, Bangirana P, Sellgren CM, Wickström R, Färnert A, Schwieler L, Engberg G, John CC.

Malar J. 2017 Jul 28;16(1):303. doi: 10.1186/s12936-017-1954-1.


CSF GABA is reduced in first-episode psychosis and associates to symptom severity.

Orhan F, Fatouros-Bergman H, Goiny M, Malmqvist A, Piehl F; Karolinska Schizophrenia Project (KaSP) Consortium, Cervenka S, Collste K, Victorsson P, Sellgren CM, Flyckt L, Erhardt S, Engberg G.

Mol Psychiatry. 2018 May;23(5):1244-1250. doi: 10.1038/mp.2017.25. Epub 2017 Mar 14.


Kynurenic acid and psychotic symptoms and personality traits in twins with psychiatric morbidity.

Kegel ME, Johansson V, Wetterberg L, Bhat M, Schwieler L, Cannon TD, Schuppe-Koistinen I, Engberg G, Landén M, Hultman CM, Erhardt S.

Psychiatry Res. 2017 Jan;247:105-112. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.11.017. Epub 2016 Nov 16.


Decreased levels of kynurenic acid in prefrontal cortex in a genetic animal model of depression.

Liu XC, Erhardt S, Goiny M, Engberg G, Mathé AA.

Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2017 Feb;29(1):54-58. doi: 10.1017/neu.2016.31. Epub 2016 Jul 13.


The kynurenine pathway in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Erhardt S, Schwieler L, Imbeault S, Engberg G.

Neuropharmacology. 2017 Jan;112(Pt B):297-306. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.05.020. Epub 2016 May 28. Review.


Repeated LPS Injection Induces Distinct Changes in the Kynurenine Pathway in Mice.

Larsson MK, Faka A, Bhat M, Imbeault S, Goiny M, Orhan F, Oliveros A, Ståhl S, Liu XC, Choi DS, Sandberg K, Engberg G, Schwieler L, Erhardt S.

Neurochem Res. 2016 Sep;41(9):2243-55. doi: 10.1007/s11064-016-1939-4. Epub 2016 May 10.


A genome-wide association study of kynurenic acid in cerebrospinal fluid: implications for psychosis and cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder.

Sellgren CM, Kegel ME, Bergen SE, Ekman CJ, Olsson S, Larsson M, Vawter MP, Backlund L, Sullivan PF, Sklar P, Smoller JW, Magnusson PK, Hultman CM, Walther-Jallow L, Svensson CI, Lichtenstein P, Schalling M, Engberg G, Erhardt S, Landén M.

Mol Psychiatry. 2016 Oct;21(10):1342-50. doi: 10.1038/mp.2015.186. Epub 2015 Dec 15.


Inhibition of kynurenine aminotransferase II reduces activity of midbrain dopamine neurons.

Linderholm KR, Alm MT, Larsson MK, Olsson SK, Goiny M, Hajos M, Erhardt S, Engberg G.

Neuropharmacology. 2016 Mar;102:42-7. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2015.10.028. Epub 2015 Oct 24.


[New findings about schizophrenia can provide new diagnostics and treatment].

Schalling M, Engberg G, Andreassen O, Erhardt S, Cunningham J, Agartz I, Petrovic P, Cervenka S, Fatouros-Bergman H.

Lakartidningen. 2015 Oct 13;112. pii: DH34. Review. Swedish.


Chronic Antipsychotic Treatment in the Rat - Effects on Brain Interleukin-8 and Kynurenic Acid.

Larsson MK, Schwieler L, Goiny M, Erhardt S, Engberg G.

Int J Tryptophan Res. 2015 Sep 20;8:49-52. doi: 10.4137/IJTR.S25915. eCollection 2015.


Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenines in multiple sclerosis; relation to disease course and neurocognitive symptoms.

Aeinehband S, Brenner P, Ståhl S, Bhat M, Fidock MD, Khademi M, Olsson T, Engberg G, Jokinen J, Erhardt S, Piehl F.

Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Jan;51:47-55. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2015.07.016. Epub 2015 Jul 17.


Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia--significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway.

Schwieler L, Larsson MK, Skogh E, Kegel ME, Orhan F, Abdelmoaty S, Finn A, Bhat M, Samuelsson M, Lundberg K, Dahl ML, Sellgren C, Schuppe-Koistinen I, Svensson C, Erhardt S, Engberg G.

J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2015 Mar;40(2):126-33.


Imbalanced kynurenine pathway in schizophrenia.

Kegel ME, Bhat M, Skogh E, Samuelsson M, Lundberg K, Dahl ML, Sellgren C, Schwieler L, Engberg G, Schuppe-Koistinen I, Erhardt S.

Int J Tryptophan Res. 2014 Sep 16;7:15-22. doi: 10.4137/IJTR.S16800. eCollection 2014.


A study on proliferation and gene expression in normal human urothelial cells in culture.

Chamorro CI, Zeiai S, Engberg GR, Brodin D, Nordenskjöld A, Fossum M.

Tissue Eng Part A. 2015 Feb;21(3-4):510-7. doi: 10.1089/ten.TEA.2014.0175. Epub 2014 Oct 3.


Sustained elevation of kynurenic Acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis.

Atlas A, Franzen-Röhl E, Söderlund J, Jönsson EG, Samuelsson M, Schwieler L, Sköldenberg B, Engberg G.

Int J Tryptophan Res. 2013 Nov 25;6:89-96. doi: 10.4137/IJTR.S13256. eCollection 2013.


Behavioral disturbances in adult mice following neonatal virus infection or kynurenine treatment--role of brain kynurenic acid.

Liu XC, Holtze M, Powell SB, Terrando N, Larsson MK, Persson A, Olsson SK, Orhan F, Kegel M, Asp L, Goiny M, Schwieler L, Engberg G, Karlsson H, Erhardt S.

Brain Behav Immun. 2014 Feb;36:80-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2013.10.010. Epub 2013 Oct 17.


The KMO allele encoding Arg452 is associated with psychotic features in bipolar disorder type 1, and with increased CSF KYNA level and reduced KMO expression.

Lavebratt C, Olsson S, Backlund L, Frisén L, Sellgren C, Priebe L, Nikamo P, Träskman-Bendz L, Cichon S, Vawter MP, Osby U, Engberg G, Landén M, Erhardt S, Schalling M.

Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Mar;19(3):334-41. doi: 10.1038/mp.2013.11. Epub 2013 Mar 5.


Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenic acid is associated with manic and psychotic features in patients with bipolar I disorder.

Olsson SK, Sellgren C, Engberg G, Landén M, Erhardt S.

Bipolar Disord. 2012 Nov;14(7):719-26. doi: 10.1111/bdi.12009. Epub 2012 Oct 3.


Effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on expression of kynurenine pathway enzymes in human dermal fibroblasts.

Asp L, Johansson AS, Mann A, Owe-Larsson B, Urbanska EM, Kocki T, Kegel M, Engberg G, Lundkvist GB, Karlsson H.

J Inflamm (Lond). 2011 Oct 8;8:25. doi: 10.1186/1476-9255-8-25.


Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase polymorphisms: relevance for kynurenic acid synthesis in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

Holtze M, Saetre P, Engberg G, Schwieler L, Werge T, Andreassen OA, Hall H, Terenius L, Agartz I, Jönsson EG, Schalling M, Erhardt S.

J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2012 Jan;37(1):53-7. doi: 10.1503/jpn.100175.


Elevation of cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-1ß in bipolar disorder.

Söderlund J, Olsson SK, Samuelsson M, Walther-Jallow L, Johansson C, Erhardt S, Landén M, Engberg G.

J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2011 Mar;36(2):114-8. doi: 10.1503/jpn.100080.


Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) polymorphisms in schizophrenia: an association study.

Holtze M, Saetre P, Erhardt S, Schwieler L, Werge T, Hansen T, Nielsen J, Djurovic S, Melle I, Andreassen OA, Hall H, Terenius L, Agartz I, Engberg G, Jönsson EG, Schalling M.

Schizophr Res. 2011 Apr;127(1-3):270-2. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2010.10.002. Epub 2010 Oct 27. No abstract available.


Increased levels of kynurenine and kynurenic acid in the CSF of patients with schizophrenia.

Linderholm KR, Skogh E, Olsson SK, Dahl ML, Holtze M, Engberg G, Samuelsson M, Erhardt S.

Schizophr Bull. 2012 May;38(3):426-32. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbq086. Epub 2010 Aug 20.


Elevated levels of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with bipolar disorder.

Olsson SK, Samuelsson M, Saetre P, Lindström L, Jönsson EG, Nordin C, Engberg G, Erhardt S, Landén M.

J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2010 May;35(3):195-9.


Activation of brain interleukin-1beta in schizophrenia.

Söderlund J, Schröder J, Nordin C, Samuelsson M, Walther-Jallow L, Karlsson H, Erhardt S, Engberg G.

Mol Psychiatry. 2009 Dec;14(12):1069-71. doi: 10.1038/mp.2009.52. No abstract available.


Pharmacological manipulation of kynurenic acid: potential in the treatment of psychiatric disorders.

Erhardt S, Olsson SK, Engberg G.

CNS Drugs. 2009;23(2):91-101. doi: 10.2165/00023210-200923020-00001. Review.


Elevated levels of kynurenic acid change the dopaminergic response to amphetamine: implications for schizophrenia.

Olsson SK, Andersson AS, Linderholm KR, Holtze M, Nilsson-Todd LK, Schwieler L, Olsson E, Larsson K, Engberg G, Erhardt S.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009 May;12(4):501-12. doi: 10.1017/S1461145708009383. Epub 2008 Sep 17.


Induction of the kynurenine pathway by neurotropic influenza A virus infection.

Holtze M, Asp L, Schwieler L, Engberg G, Karlsson H.

J Neurosci Res. 2008 Dec;86(16):3674-83. doi: 10.1002/jnr.21799.


Clozapine interacts with the glycine site of the NMDA receptor: electrophysiological studies of dopamine neurons in the rat ventral tegmental area.

Schwieler L, Linderholm KR, Nilsson-Todd LK, Erhardt S, Engberg G.

Life Sci. 2008 Aug 1;83(5-6):170-5. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2008.05.014. Epub 2008 Jun 10.


Activation of rat ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons by endogenous kynurenic acid: a pharmacological analysis.

Linderholm KR, Andersson A, Olsson S, Olsson E, Snodgrass R, Engberg G, Erhardt S.

Neuropharmacology. 2007 Dec;53(8):918-24. Epub 2007 Sep 20.


The kynurenic acid hypothesis of schizophrenia.

Erhardt S, Schwieler L, Nilsson L, Linderholm K, Engberg G.

Physiol Behav. 2007 Sep 10;92(1-2):203-9. Epub 2007 May 21.


Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenic acid in male and female controls - correlation with monoamine metabolites and influences of confounding factors.

Nilsson LK, Nordin C, Jönsson EG, Engberg G, Linderholm KR, Erhardt S.

J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Jan-Feb;41(1-2):144-51. Epub 2006 Jan 24.


Effects of COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitors on the firing of rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons--possible involvement of endogenous kynurenic acid.

Schwieler L, Erhardt S, Nilsson L, Linderholm K, Engberg G.

Synapse. 2006 Apr;59(5):290-8.


Elevated levels of kynurenic acid in the cerebrospinal fluid of male patients with schizophrenia.

Nilsson LK, Linderholm KR, Engberg G, Paulson L, Blennow K, Lindström LH, Nordin C, Karanti A, Persson P, Erhardt S.

Schizophr Res. 2005 Dec 15;80(2-3):315-22. Epub 2005 Aug 25.


Reduced D-serine to total serine ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid of drug naive schizophrenic patients.

Hashimoto K, Engberg G, Shimizu E, Nordin C, Lindström LH, Iyo M.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2005 Jun;29(5):767-9.


Activation of noradrenergic locus coeruleus neurons by clozapine and haloperidol: involvement of glutamatergic mechanisms.

Nilsson LK, Schwieler L, Engberg G, Linderholm KR, Erhardt S.

Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Sep;8(3):329-39. Epub 2005 Feb 18.


Elevated glutamine/glutamate ratio in cerebrospinal fluid of first episode and drug naive schizophrenic patients.

Hashimoto K, Engberg G, Shimizu E, Nordin C, Lindström LH, Iyo M.

BMC Psychiatry. 2005 Jan 31;5:6.


Prostaglandin-mediated control of rat brain kynurenic acid synthesis--opposite actions by COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms.

Schwieler L, Erhardt S, Erhardt C, Engberg G.

J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2005 Jul;112(7):863-72. Epub 2004 Oct 27.


Kynurenic acid and schizophrenia.

Erhardt S, Schwieler L, Engberg G.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2003;527:155-65.


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