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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2019 Feb 26;63(3). pii: e02242-18. doi: 10.1128/AAC.02242-18. Print 2019 Mar.

Efficacy and Safety of Pyronaridine-Artesunate plus Single-Dose Primaquine for Treatment of Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Eastern Cambodia.

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National Center for Parasitology, Entomology and Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
Institut Pasteur in Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
World Health Organization, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
World Health Organization, Bangkok, Thailand.
World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
Contributed equally


In Cambodia, multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum undermines the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, and new therapeutic options are needed. Pyronaridine-artesunate has not previously been evaluated in eastern Cambodia. We conducted a single-arm, open-label, prospective study between July and December 2017 at the Koh Gnek (Mondulkiri) and Veun Sai (Rattanakiri) health centers in eastern Cambodia. Eligible patients were aged ≥7 years (females, ages 12 to 18 years, were excluded), weighing ≥20 kg, with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum monoinfection and fever. Oral pyronaridine-artesunate was administered once daily for 3 days, dosed according to body weight, plus a single dose of primaquine on day 0. Sixty patients were recruited to Koh Gnek, and 61 patients were recruited to Veun Sai. The primary outcomes, i.e., the day 42 PCR-adjusted adequate clinical and parasitological responses (ACPRs), were 98.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.4 to 99.8) in Koh Gnek and 96.7% (95% CI, 87.3 to 99.2) in Veun Sai (Kaplan-Meier). In a per-protocol analysis, the proportions of patients with day 42 PCR-adjusted ACPRs were 98.3% (57/58; 95% CI, 90.8 to 100.0) at Koh Gnek and 96.7% (58/60; 95% CI, 88.5 to 99.6) at Veun Sai. The Kelch13 (C580Y) mutation was present in 70.0% (77/110) of isolates. The copy numbers were increased in 61.3% (73/119) of isolates for Pfpm2 and in 1.7% (2/119) for Pfmdr1 There was no relationship between outcome and the 50% inhibitory concentration of pyronaridine. Adverse events were consistent with malaria, and there were no serious adverse events. Pyronaridine-artesunate has high efficacy in eastern Cambodia and could be used to increase the diversity of antimalarial therapy in the region. (This study is registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry [ANZCTR] under no. ACTRN12618001300268.).


Cambodia; Plasmodium falciparum; artemisinin; drug resistance; pyronaridine-artesunate

[Available on 2019-08-26]

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