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J Vet Sci. 2015;16(4):459-66. doi: 10.4142/jvs.2015.16.4.459.

Phylogeography of the current rabies viruses in Indonesia.

Author information

Animal Disease Investigation Centre, Denpasar 80226, Indonesia.
Veterinary Science Post Graduate Program, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gajah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
Veterinary Public Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gajah Mada University, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden 2570, Australia.
The Animal Biomedical and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Udayana University, Denpasar 80226, Indonesia.


Rabies is a major fatal zoonotic disease in Indonesia. This study was conducted to determine the recent dynamics of rabies virus (RABV) in various areas and animal species throughout Indonesia. A total of 27 brain samples collected from rabid animals of various species in Bali, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Java, and Flores in 2008 to 2010 were investigated. The cDNA of the nucleoprotein gene from each sample was generated and amplified by one-step reverse transcription-PCR, after which the products were sequenced and analyzed. The symmetric substitution model of a Bayesian stochastic search variable selection extension of the discrete phylogeographic model of the social network was applied in BEAST ver. 1.7.5 software. The spatial dispersal was visualized in Cartographica using Spatial Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Evolutionary Dynamics. We demonstrated inter-island introduction and reintroduction, and dog was found to be the only source of infection of other animals. Ancestors of Indonesian RABVs originated in Java and its descendants were transmitted to Kalimantan, then further to Sumatra, Flores, and Bali. The Flores descendent was subsequently transmitted to Sulawesi and back to Kalimantan. The viruses found in various animal species were transmitted by the dog.


Indonesia; phylogeography; rabies virus

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