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Proc Biol Sci. 2013 Jul 17;280(1766):20130836. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.0836. Print 2013 Sep 7.

Travelling light: white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) rely on body lipid stores to power ocean-basin scale migration.

Author information

1
Hopkins Marine Station, Department of Biology, Stanford University, 120 Oceanview Boulevard, Pacific Grove, CA 93950, USA. gdelraye@hawaii.edu

Abstract

Many species undertake long-distance annual migrations between foraging and reproductive areas. Such migrants depend on the efficient packaging, storage and utilization of energy to succeed. A diverse assemblage of organisms accomplishes this through the use of lipid reserves; yet, it remains unclear whether the migrations of elasmobranchs, which include the largest gill breathers on Earth, depend on such a mechanism. We examine depth records from pop-up satellite archival tags to discern changes in buoyancy as a proxy for energy storage in Eastern Pacific white sharks, and assess whether lipid depletion fuels long-distance (approx. 4000 km) migrations. We develop new algorithms to assess body condition, buoyancy and drift rate during drift dives and validate the techniques using a captive white shark. In the wild, we document a consistent increase in drift rate over the course of all migrations, indicating a decrease in buoyancy caused by the depletion of lipid reserves. These results comprise, to our knowledge, the first assessment of energy storage and budgeting in migrating sharks. The methods provide a basis for further insights into using electronic tags to reveal the energetic strategies of a wide range of elasmobranchs.

KEYWORDS:

bioenergetics; buoyancy; migration; white shark

PMID:
23864595
PMCID:
PMC3730586
DOI:
10.1098/rspb.2013.0836
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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