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Mol Cancer Ther. 2020 Mar;19(3):847-857. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-19-0631. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Efficacy of FGFR Inhibitors and Combination Therapies for Acquired Resistance in FGFR2-Fusion Cholangiocarcinoma.

Author information

1
Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
3
Department of Internal Medicine, Hematology and Oncology Fellowship Program, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
4
Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.
5
Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
6
Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
7
Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. sameek.roychowdhury@osumc.edu.

Abstract

The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in approximately 15% to 20% of patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Currently, several FGFR kinase inhibitors are being assessed in clinical trials for patients with FGFR-altered cholangiocarcinoma. Despite evidence of initial responses and disease control, virtually all patients eventually develop acquired resistance. Thus, there is a critical need for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies to overcome acquired drug resistance. Here, we present findings from a patient with FGFR2-altered metastatic cholangiocarcinoma who enrolled in a phase II clinical trial of the FGFR inhibitor, infigratinib (BGJ398). Treatment was initially effective as demonstrated by imaging and tumor marker response; however, after 8 months on trial, the patient exhibited tumor regrowth and disease progression. Targeted sequencing of tumor DNA after disease progression revealed the FGFR2 kinase domain p.E565A and p.L617M single-nucleotide variants (SNV) hypothesized to drive acquired resistance to infigratinib. The sensitivities of these FGFR2 SNVs, which were detected post-infigratinib therapy, were extended to include clinically relevant FGFR inhibitors, including AZD4547, erdafitinib (JNJ-42756493), dovitinib, ponatinib, and TAS120, and were evaluated in vitro Through a proteomics approach, we identified upregulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in cells harboring the FGFR2 p.E565A mutation and demonstrated that combination therapy strategies with FGFR and mTOR inhibitors may be used to overcome resistance to FGFR inhibition, specific to infigratinib. Collectively, these studies support the development of novel combination therapeutic strategies in addition to the next generation of FGFR inhibitors to overcome acquired resistance in patients.

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