Send to

Choose Destination
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2016 Oct 27;82(22):6541-6547. Print 2016 Nov 15.

Genomic and Transcriptional Mapping of PaMx41, Archetype of a New Lineage of Bacteriophages Infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Author information

Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mexico City, Mexico.
Departamento de Genética y Biología Molecular, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV-IPN), Mexico City, Mexico


Previously, a collection of virulent phages infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from open water reservoirs and residual waters. Here, we described the comparative genomics of a set of five related phages from the collection, the physical structure of the genome, the structural proteomics of the virion, and the transcriptional program of archetypal phage PaMx41. The phage genomes were closely associated with each other and with those of two other P. aeruginosa phages, 119X and PaP2, which were previously filed in the databases. Overall, the genomes were approximately 43 kb, harboring 53 conserved open reading frames (ORFs) and three short ORFs in indel regions and containing 45% GC content. The genome of PaMx41 was further characterized as a linear, terminally redundant DNA molecule. A total of 16 ORFs were associated with putative functions, including nucleic acid metabolism, morphogenesis, and lysis, and eight virion proteins were identified through mass spectrometry. However, the coding sequences without assigned functions represent 70% of the ORFs. The PaMx41 transcription program was organized in early, middle, and late expressed genomic modules, which correlated with regions containing functionally related genes. The high genomic conservation among these distantly isolated phages suggests that these viruses undergo selective pressure to remain unchanged. The 119X lineage represents a unique set of phages that corresponds to a novel phage group. The features recognized in the genomes and the broad host range of clinical strains suggest that these phages are candidates for therapy applications.


Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes stubborn nosocomial infections that are frequently resistant to multiple antibiotics. Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages or phages) represent a natural mechanism for pathogenic bacterial control. Here, a group of virulent phages, previously shown to infect a broad range of clinical P. aeruginosa strains, was characterized at the genomic and molecular levels. These phages belong to a unique and tightly related group. In addition, we conducted a transcriptional study of an archetypal phage of this group to characterize the role of many unknown coding sequences based on expression temporalities. These results contribute to our knowledge of 119X-like phages and, in general, provide information concerning P. aeruginosa podophage diversity and lytic cycles.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center