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LT-IIc, A Bacterial Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxin, Induces Specific Lethality in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells by Modulation of Autophagy and Induction of Apoptosis and Necroptosis.

Masso-Welch P, Girald Berlingeri S, King-Lyons ND, Mandell L, Hu J, Greene CJ, Federowicz M, Cao P, Connell TD, Heakal Y.

Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Dec 26;20(1). pii: E85. doi: 10.3390/ijms20010085.


Novel Therapeutic Approach for Inhibition of HIV-1 Using Cell-Penetrating Peptide and Bacterial Toxins.

Samuels S, Alwan Z, Egnin M, Jaynes J, Connell TD, Bernard GC, Nashar T.

J AIDS Clin Res. 2017 Oct;8(10). pii: 737. doi: 10.4172/2155-6113.1000737. Epub 2017 Oct 23.


Expression and Regulation of Cholecystokinin Receptor in the Chicken's Immune Organs and Cells.

El-Kassas S, Odemuyiwa S, Hajishengallis G, Connell TD, Nashar TO.

J Clin Cell Immunol. 2016 Dec;7(6). pii: 471. doi: 10.4172/2155-9899.1000471. Epub 2016 Nov 25.


Dendritic Cell-Mediated Mechanisms Triggered by LT-IIa-B5, a Mucosal Adjuvant Derived from a Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxin of Escherichia coli.

Lee CH, Hajishengallis G, Connell TD.

J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017 Apr 28;27(4):709-717. doi: 10.4014/jmb.1611.11072.


Targeting dendritic cells to accelerate T-cell activation overcomes a bottleneck in tuberculosis vaccine efficacy.

Griffiths KL, Ahmed M, Das S, Gopal R, Horne W, Connell TD, Moynihan KD, Kolls JK, Irvine DJ, Artyomov MN, Rangel-Moreno J, Khader SA.

Nat Commun. 2016 Dec 22;7:13894. doi: 10.1038/ncomms13894.


High-intensity meropenem combinations with polymyxin B: new strategies to overcome carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii.

Lenhard JR, Bulitta JB, Connell TD, King-Lyons N, Landersdorfer CB, Cheah SE, Thamlikitkul V, Shin BS, Rao G, Holden PN, Walsh TJ, Forrest A, Nation RL, Li J, Tsuji BT.

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017 Jan;72(1):153-165. Epub 2016 Sep 15.


Enhancement of humoral immunity by the type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIb is dependent upon IL-6 and neutrophils.

Greene CJ, Hu JC, Vance DJ, Rong Y, Mandell L, King-Lyons N, Masso-Welch P, Mantis NJ, Connell TD.

J Leukoc Biol. 2016 Aug;100(2):361-9. doi: 10.1189/jlb.3A0415-153RR. Epub 2016 Apr 8.


Novel Strategy To Protect against Influenza Virus-Induced Pneumococcal Disease without Interfering with Commensal Colonization.

Greene CJ, Marks LR, Hu JC, Reddinger R, Mandell L, Roche-Hakansson H, King-Lyons ND, Connell TD, Hakansson AP.

Infect Immun. 2016 May 24;84(6):1693-1703. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01478-15. Print 2016 Jun.


The Divergent CD8+ T Cell Adjuvant Properties of LT-IIb and LT-IIc, Two Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxins, Are Conferred by Their Ganglioside-Binding B Subunits.

Hu JC, Greene CJ, King-Lyons ND, Connell TD.

PLoS One. 2015 Nov 13;10(11):e0142942. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142942. eCollection 2015.


Comparative Adjuvant Effects of Type II Heat-Labile Enterotoxins in Combination with Two Different Candidate Ricin Toxin Vaccine Antigens.

Vance DJ, Greene CJ, Rong Y, Mandell LM, Connell TD, Mantis NJ.

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015 Dec;22(12):1285-93. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00402-15. Epub 2015 Oct 21.


Cell clustering and delay/arrest in T-cell division implicate a novel mechanism of immune modulation by E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin B-subunits.

El-Kassas S, Faraj R, Martin K, Hajishengallis G, Connell TD, Nashar T.

Cell Immunol. 2015 Jun;295(2):150-62. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2015.02.014. Epub 2015 Mar 5.


Intradermal administration of the Type II heat-labile enterotoxins LT-IIb and LT-IIc of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli enhances humoral and CD8+ T cell immunity to a co-administered antigen.

Hu JC, Mathias-Santos C, Greene CJ, King-Lyons ND, Rodrigues JF, Hajishengallis G, Ferreira LC, Connell TD.

PLoS One. 2014 Dec 23;9(12):e113978. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113978. eCollection 2014.


Mucosal pre-exposure to Th17-inducing adjuvants exacerbates pathology after influenza infection.

Gopal R, Rangel-Moreno J, Fallert Junecko BA, Mallon DJ, Chen K, Pociask DA, Connell TD, Reinhart TA, Alcorn JF, Ross TM, Kolls JK, Khader SA.

Am J Pathol. 2014 Jan;184(1):55-63. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.09.012. Epub 2013 Nov 1.


LT-IIb(T13I), a non-toxic type II heat-labile enterotoxin, augments the capacity of a ricin toxin subunit vaccine to evoke neutralizing antibodies and protective immunity.

Greene CJ, Chadwick CM, Mandell LM, Hu JC, O'Hara JM, Brey RN 3rd, Mantis NJ, Connell TD.

PLoS One. 2013 Aug 2;8(8):e69678. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069678. Print 2013.


Interleukin-17-dependent CXCL13 mediates mucosal vaccine-induced immunity against tuberculosis.

Gopal R, Rangel-Moreno J, Slight S, Lin Y, Nawar HF, Fallert Junecko BA, Reinhart TA, Kolls J, Randall TD, Connell TD, Khader SA.

Mucosal Immunol. 2013 Sep;6(5):972-84. doi: 10.1038/mi.2012.135. Epub 2013 Jan 9.


Structure-activity correlations of variant forms of the B pentamer of Escherichia coli type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIb with Toll-like receptor 2 binding.

Cody V, Pace J, Nawar HF, King-Lyons N, Liang S, Connell TD, Hajishengallis G.

Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2012 Dec;68(Pt 12):1604-12. doi: 10.1107/S0907444912038917. Epub 2012 Nov 9.


Type II heat-labile enterotoxins: structure, function, and immunomodulatory properties.

Hajishengallis G, Connell TD.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2013 Mar 15;152(1-2):68-77. doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2012.09.034. Epub 2012 Sep 26. Review.


Novel iron-regulated and Fur-regulated small regulatory RNAs in Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

Amarasinghe JJ, Connell TD, Scannapieco FA, Haase EM.

Mol Oral Microbiol. 2012 Oct;27(5):327-49. doi: 10.1111/j.2041-1014.2012.00645.x. Epub 2012 Apr 5.


Ganglioside-binding specificities of E. coli enterotoxin LT-IIc: Importance of long-chain fatty acyl ceramide.

Berenson CS, Nawar HF, Kruzel RL, Mandell LM, Connell TD.

Glycobiology. 2013 Jan;23(1):23-31. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cws123. Epub 2012 Aug 22.


Evaluation of heat-labile enterotoxins type IIa and type IIb in the pathogenicity of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli for neonatal pigs.

Casey TA, Connell TD, Holmes RK, Whipp SC.

Vet Microbiol. 2012 Sep 14;159(1-2):83-9. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.03.018. Epub 2012 Mar 16.


TLR2-dependent modulation of dendritic cells by LT-IIa-B5, a novel mucosal adjuvant derived from a type II heat-labile enterotoxin.

Lee CH, Masso-Welch P, Hajishengallis G, Connell TD.

J Leukoc Biol. 2011 Nov;90(5):911-21. doi: 10.1189/jlb.0511236. Epub 2011 Jul 26.


Distinctive immunomodulatory and inflammatory properties of the Escherichia coli type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIa and its B pentamer following intradermal administration.

Mathias-Santos C, Rodrigues JF, Sbrogio-Almeida ME, Connell TD, Ferreira LC.

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2011 Aug;18(8):1243-51. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00012-11. Epub 2011 Jun 15.


TLR2 signaling and Th2 responses drive Tannerella forsythia-induced periodontal bone loss.

Myneni SR, Settem RP, Connell TD, Keegan AD, Gaffen SL, Sharma A.

J Immunol. 2011 Jul 1;187(1):501-9. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1100683. Epub 2011 Jun 1.


LT-IIc, a new member of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin family, exhibits potent immunomodulatory properties that are different from those induced by LT-IIa or LT-IIb.

Nawar HF, Greene CJ, Lee CH, Mandell LM, Hajishengallis G, Connell TD.

Vaccine. 2011 Jan 17;29(4):721-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.11.020. Epub 2010 Nov 21.


LT-IIc, a new member of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin family encoded by an Escherichia coli strain obtained from a nonmammalian host.

Nawar HF, King-Lyons ND, Hu JC, Pasek RC, Connell TD.

Infect Immun. 2010 Nov;78(11):4705-13. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00730-10. Epub 2010 Aug 16.


Binding to gangliosides containing N-acetylneuraminic acid is sufficient to mediate the immunomodulatory properties of the nontoxic mucosal adjuvant LT-IIb(T13I).

Nawar HF, Berenson CS, Hajishengallis G, Takematsu H, Mandell L, Clare RL, Connell TD.

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Jun;17(6):969-78. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00076-10. Epub 2010 Apr 14.


Enhanced antigen uptake by dendritic cells induced by the B pentamer of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin LT-IIa requires engagement of TLR2.

Lee CH, Nawar HF, Mandell L, Liang S, Hajishengallis G, Connell TD.

Vaccine. 2010 May 7;28(21):3696-705. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.03.016. Epub 2010 Mar 21.


Expression of BfrH, a putative siderophore receptor of Bordetella bronchiseptica, is regulated by iron, Fur1, and the extracellular function sigma factor EcfI.

Burgos JM, King-Lyons ND, Connell TD.

Infect Immun. 2010 Mar;78(3):1147-62. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00961-09. Epub 2009 Dec 14.


Mammalian cell ganglioside-binding specificities of E. coli enterotoxins LT-IIb and variant LT-IIb(T13I).

Berenson CS, Nawar HF, Yohe HC, Castle SA, Ashline DJ, Reinhold VN, Hajishengallis G, Connell TD.

Glycobiology. 2010 Jan;20(1):41-54. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cwp141. Epub 2009 Sep 12.


In vivo and in vitro adjuvant activities of the B subunit of Type IIb heat-labile enterotoxin (LT-IIb-B5) from Escherichia coli.

Liang S, Hosur KB, Nawar HF, Russell MW, Connell TD, Hajishengallis G.

Vaccine. 2009 Jul 9;27(32):4302-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.027. Epub 2009 May 29.


Ganglioside-linked terminal sialic acid moieties on murine macrophages function as attachment receptors for murine noroviruses.

Taube S, Perry JW, Yetming K, Patel SP, Auble H, Shu L, Nawar HF, Lee CH, Connell TD, Shayman JA, Wobus CE.

J Virol. 2009 May;83(9):4092-101. doi: 10.1128/JVI.02245-08. Epub 2009 Feb 25.


Mapping of a microbial protein domain involved in binding and activation of the TLR2/TLR1 heterodimer.

Liang S, Hosur KB, Lu S, Nawar HF, Weber BR, Tapping RI, Connell TD, Hajishengallis G.

J Immunol. 2009 Mar 1;182(5):2978-85. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0803737.


The A subunit of type IIb enterotoxin (LT-IIb) suppresses the proinflammatory potential of the B subunit and its ability to recruit and interact with TLR2.

Liang S, Wang M, Triantafilou K, Triantafilou M, Nawar HF, Russell MW, Connell TD, Hajishengallis G.

J Immunol. 2007 Apr 15;178(8):4811-9.


Ganglioside GD1a is an essential coreceptor for Toll-like receptor 2 signaling in response to the B subunit of type IIb enterotoxin.

Liang S, Wang M, Tapping RI, Stepensky V, Nawar HF, Triantafilou M, Triantafilou K, Connell TD, Hajishengallis G.

J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 9;282(10):7532-42. Epub 2007 Jan 16.


Comparison of the genome sequence of the poultry pathogen Bordetella avium with those of B. bronchiseptica, B. pertussis, and B. parapertussis reveals extensive diversity in surface structures associated with host interaction.

Sebaihia M, Preston A, Maskell DJ, Kuzmiak H, Connell TD, King ND, Orndorff PE, Miyamoto DM, Thomson NR, Harris D, Goble A, Lord A, Murphy L, Quail MA, Rutter S, Squares R, Squares S, Woodward J, Parkhill J, Temple LM.

J Bacteriol. 2006 Aug;188(16):6002-15.


Immunomodulation with enterotoxins for the generation of secretory immunity or tolerance: applications for oral infections.

Hajishengallis G, Arce S, Gockel CM, Connell TD, Russell MW.

J Dent Res. 2005 Dec;84(12):1104-16. Review.


Enterotoxin-based mucosal adjuvants alter antigen trafficking and induce inflammatory responses in the nasal tract.

van Ginkel FW, Jackson RJ, Yoshino N, Hagiwara Y, Metzger DJ, Connell TD, Vu HL, Martin M, Fujihashi K, McGhee JR.

Infect Immun. 2005 Oct;73(10):6892-902.


Transcriptional control of the rhuIR-bhuRSTUV heme acquisition locus in Bordetella avium.

King ND, Kirby AE, Connell TD.

Infect Immun. 2005 Mar;73(3):1613-24.


Toll-like receptor 2 mediates cellular activation by the B subunits of type II heat-labile enterotoxins.

Hajishengallis G, Tapping RI, Martin MH, Nawar H, Lyle EA, Russell MW, Connell TD.

Infect Immun. 2005 Mar;73(3):1343-9.


BhuR, a virulence-associated outer membrane protein of Bordetella avium, is required for the acquisition of iron from heme and hemoproteins.

Murphy ER, Sacco RE, Dickenson A, Metzger DJ, Hu Y, Orndorff PE, Connell TD.

Infect Immun. 2002 Oct;70(10):5390-403.

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