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Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2017 Feb;34(2):299-306. doi: 10.1080/19440049.2016.1252064. Epub 2016 Dec 13.

Role of grapevine vegetative expression on Aspergillus spp. incidence and OTA accumulation in wines produced in a temperate humid climate.

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a Instituto Nacional de Investigación Agropecuaria , Estación Experimental Las Brujas , 90200 Canelones , Uruguay.
b Sección Enología , Facultad de Química , UdelaR, Gral. Flores 2124, 11800 Montevideo , Uruguay.
c Laboratorio de Biotecnología de Aromas, Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Química , UdelaR, Gral. Flores 2124, 11800 Montevideo , Uruguay.


Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. are the main producers of ochratoxin A (OTA), a mycotoxin responsible for fatal human diseases. Some authorities have established a maximum of 2 μg/L of OTA in wine. Although the incidence and occurrence of OTA in grapes and wine is highly related to climate conditions, as has been extensively documented, there is no conclusive information on the effects of cultivation systems on the presence of OTA. This study focuses on determining the effect of the trellis system, planting density and cordon height on plant microclimate and thus on Aspergillus spp. contamination and OTA production in Tannat wines in Southern Uruguay. Two experiments were conducted during the 2010-2011 growing season: (1) a strip split plot design with five replicates and two cordon heights (CH) (0.5 m and 1.0 m above the soil) were compared in two planting densities (PD) (0.8 and 1.5 m between plants); (2) a randomised complete block design, vertical shoot positioning (VSP) versus Lyra trellis systems were evaluated. The results suggest that, even the macro- and micro-climate growing conditions play an important part in Aspergillus developing on grapes. Agronomical practices also have an undoubted impact on the risk and control of OTA accumulation in wine.


Aspergillus; Ochratoxin A; microclimate; planting density; trellis systems

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