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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Feb;23(3):2288-300. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-5393-7. Epub 2015 Sep 26.

Chemical, molecular, and proteomic analyses of moss bag biomonitoring in a petrochemical area of Sardinia (Italy).

Author information

1
Macrosezione Botanica ed Orto Botanico, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Viale S. Ignazio 13, I-09123, Cagliari, Italy. pierluigi.cortis@unica.it.
2
Department of Biotechnology and Life Science, University of Insubria, Via J. H. Dunant 3, I-21100, Varese, Italy.
3
Macrosezione Botanica ed Orto Botanico, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Viale S. Ignazio 13, I-09123, Cagliari, Italy.
4
Department of Biotechnology and Biosciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 2, I-20126, Milan, Italy.

Abstract

In this study, Hypnum cupressiforme moss bags were used to examine the atmospheric deposition of trace elements in the oil refinery region of Sardinia (Italy) compared with surrounding natural zones. The concentrations of 13 elements [arsenic (As), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn)] were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. A significant accumulation of pollutants was detected using active biomonitoring with moss bags compared with a control site. The most relevant contaminants for all of the tested sites were Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Moreover, the accumulation of Cr and Zn in the refinery industrial areas, IA1 and IA2, was more than five times greater than that detected at the control site. Levels of Cd, Mg, and Pb were also higher at all of the monitored sites compared with the control site. Both genomic and proteomic methods were used to study the response of H. cupressiforme to air pollution. No DNA damage or mutations were detected using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) method. At the protein level, 15 gel spots exhibited differential expression profiles between the moss samples collected at the IA1 site and the control site. Furthermore, among the 14 spots that showed a decrease in protein expression, nine were associated with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and proteins of the light-harvesting complexes of photosystem (PS) II, three were associated with protein synthesis, and three were stress-related proteins. Thus, some of these proteins may represent good moss biosensors which could be used as pre-alert markers of environmental pollution.

KEYWORDS:

Air pollution; Genotoxic; Heavy metals; Hypnum cupressiforme; Proteomic; Refinery

PMID:
26408120
DOI:
10.1007/s11356-015-5393-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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