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Hepat Mon. 2016 Jul 23;16(9):e35658. eCollection 2016 Sep.

Co-Infection of the Hepatitis C Virus With Other Blood-Borne and Hepatotropic Viruses Among Hemophilia Patients in Poland.

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Department of Infectious Diseases, Hepatology and Acquired Immune Deficiencies, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
Department of Psychiatry, Division of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
Department of General and Pediatric Radiology, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.
Department of Hematology, Blood Neoplasms and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland.



The prevalence of HCV infection in people with hemophilia is substantially higher than that in the general population (63% - 98%). Multiple transfusions and substitutive therapy have also been linked to a high risk of HBV and HIV transmission. However, the prevalence of other blood-borne viral infections in this population is less well known.


This study aimed to assess the prevalence of co-infection with HBV and other blood-borne viruses in Polish HCV-infected hemophiliacs.


Seventy-one individuals, the majority of whom were male (94.36%), who had congenital bleeding disorders (60 had hemophilia A, five had hemophilia B, and six had other factor deficiencies) and HCV infection, which was defined as the presence of positive anti-HCV antibodies, were included in this study. The study group was divided into two subgroups according to the year in which blood donors were first tested for HBsAg in Poland. The serological markers were screened using commercially available enzyme immunoassays according to the manufacturer's instructions. The molecular tests were performed using real-time PCR technology with commercial assays according to the manufacturer's instructions.


The spontaneous elimination rate of HCV RNA was 29.6%. The HCV genotype 1 was detected in 28 patients (65.1%), genotype 2 in one patient (2.3%), genotype 3 in 11 patients (25.6%), genotype 4 in two patients (4.7%), and a mixed infection with genotypes 1 and 4 was detected in one person (2.3%). Fifty-three patients (74.6%) were anti-HBc positive. Among the seven HBsAg(+) patients, three individuals were HBV-DNA positive. No occult hepatitis B was detected. In six HBsAg positive patients, the HCV RNA was positive, while one patient was also infected with HIV. The prevalence rate of past infection with HAV in the study group was 30.9%, with a tendency for a higher prevalence in older patients. The prevalence of CMV and EBV infection was high and similar to that seen in the general population. All the patients were HGV and HTLV-1 negative.


The diagnostics and management of infections with hepatotropic viruses, particularly HBV, are neglected in hemophilic patients. All patients with coagulation disorders and a history of exposure to non-inactivated blood products should be screened for blood-borne infections. The prevalence of other potentially blood-borne viral infections exhibited a pattern similar to that observed in the general population.


Blood-Borne Pathogens; Coinfection; Hemophilia A; Hemophilia B; Hepatitis C

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