Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2015 Dec 29;10(12):e0145784. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145784. eCollection 2015.

The Effect of Lactobacillus casei 32G on the Mouse Cecum Microbiota and Innate Immune Response Is Dose and Time Dependent.

Author information

Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America.
Food Science and Technology, Maejo University, Chiangmai, Thailand.
Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America.
William S. Middleton Veterans Affairs Hospital, Madison, WI, United States of America.
Animal Health and Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States of America.


Lactobacilli have been associated with a variety of immunomodulatory effects and some of these effects have been related to changes in gastrointestinal microbiota. However, the relationship between probiotic dose, time since probiotic consumption, changes in the microbiota, and immune system requires further investigation. The objective of this study was to determine if the effect of Lactobacillus casei 32G on the murine gastrointestinal microbiota and immune function are dose and time dependent. Mice were fed L. casei 32G at doses of 106, 107, or 108 CFU/day/mouse for seven days and were sacrificed 0.5h, 3.5h, 12h, or 24h after the last administration. The ileum tissue and the cecal content were collected for immune profiling by qPCR and microbiota analysis, respectively. The time required for L. casei 32G to reach the cecum was monitored by qPCR and the 32G bolus reaches the cecum 3.5h after the last administration. L. casei 32G altered the cecal microbiota with the predominance of Lachnospiraceae IS, and Oscillospira decreasing significantly (p < 0.05) in the mice receiving 108 CFU/mouse 32G relative to the control mice, while a significant (p < 0.05) increase was observed in the prevalence of lactobacilli. The lactobacilli that increased were determined to be a commensal lactobacilli. Interestingly, no significant difference in the overall microbiota composition, regardless of 32G doses, was observed at the 12h time point. A likely explanation for this observation is the level of feed derived-nutrients resulting from the 12h light/dark cycle. 32G results in consistent increases in Clec2h expression and reductions in TLR-2, alpha-defensins, and lysozyme. Changes in expression of these components of the innate immune system are one possible explanation for the observed changes in the cecal microbiota. Additionally, 32G administration was observed to alter the expression of cytokines (IL-10rb and TNF-α) in a manner consistent with an anti-inflammatory response.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center