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Toxoplasma Cathepsin Protease B and Aspartyl Protease 1 Are Dispensable for Endolysosomal Protein Digestion.

McDonald C, Smith D, Di Cristina M, Kannan G, Dou Z, Carruthers VB.

mSphere. 2020 Feb 12;5(1). pii: e00869-19. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00869-19.


Discovery and Optimization of Triazine Nitrile Inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii Cathepsin L for the Potential Treatment of Chronic Toxoplasmosis in the CNS.

Zwicker JD, Smith D, Guerra AJ, Hitchens JR, Haug N, Vander Roest S, Lee P, Wen B, Sun D, Wang L, Keep RF, Xiang J, Carruthers VB, Larsen SD.

ACS Chem Neurosci. 2020 Feb 18. doi: 10.1021/acschemneuro.9b00674. [Epub ahead of print]


Toxoplasma gondii: Bradyzoite Differentiation In Vitro and In Vivo.

Mayoral J, Di Cristina M, Carruthers VB, Weiss LM.

Methods Mol Biol. 2020;2071:269-282. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9857-9_15.


PCR Screening of Toxoplasma gondii Single Clones Directly from 96-Well Plates Without DNA Purification.

Piro F, Carruthers VB, Di Cristina M.

Methods Mol Biol. 2020;2071:117-123. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9857-9_6.


Role of Toxoplasma gondii Chloroquine Resistance Transporter in Bradyzoite Viability and Digestive Vacuole Maintenance.

Kannan G, Di Cristina M, Schultz AJ, Huynh MH, Wang F, Schultz TL, Lunghi M, Coppens I, Carruthers VB.

mBio. 2019 Aug 6;10(4). pii: e01324-19. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01324-19.


Interrupting Toxoplasma's Regularly Scheduled Program of Egress.

Carruthers VB.

Trends Parasitol. 2019 May;35(5):338-340. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2019 Apr 1.


Protein O-fucosyltransferase 2-mediated O-glycosylation of the adhesin MIC2 is dispensable for Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite infection.

Khurana S, Coffey MJ, John A, Uboldi AD, Huynh MH, Stewart RJ, Carruthers VB, Tonkin CJ, Goddard-Borger ED, Scott NE.

J Biol Chem. 2019 Feb 1;294(5):1541-1553. doi: 10.1074/jbc.RA118.005357. Epub 2018 Dec 4.


Structural basis of Toxoplasma gondii perforin-like protein 1 membrane interaction and activity during egress.

Guerra AJ, Zhang O, Bahr CME, Huynh MH, DelProposto J, Brown WC, Wawrzak Z, Koropatkin NM, Carruthers VB.

PLoS Pathog. 2018 Dec 4;14(12):e1007476. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007476. eCollection 2018 Dec.


Optimization of dipeptidic inhibitors of cathepsin L for improved Toxoplasma gondii selectivity and CNS permeability.

Zwicker JD, Diaz NA, Guerra AJ, Kirchhoff PD, Wen B, Sun D, Carruthers VB, Larsen SD.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2018 Jun 1;28(10):1972-1980. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2018.03.020. Epub 2018 Mar 9.


Toxoplasma gondii LCAT Primarily Contributes to Tachyzoite Egress.

Schultz AJ, Carruthers VB.

mSphere. 2018 Feb 28;3(1). pii: e00073-18. doi: 10.1128/mSphereDirect.00073-18. eCollection 2018 Jan-Feb.


New and emerging uses of CRISPR/Cas9 to genetically manipulate apicomplexan parasites.

Di Cristina M, Carruthers VB.

Parasitology. 2018 Aug;145(9):1119-1126. doi: 10.1017/S003118201800001X. Epub 2018 Feb 21. Review.


Intersection of endocytic and exocytic systems in Toxoplasma gondii.

McGovern OL, Rivera-Cuevas Y, Kannan G, Narwold AJ Jr, Carruthers VB.

Traffic. 2018 May;19(5):336-353. doi: 10.1111/tra.12556. Epub 2018 Mar 25.


Toward detection of toxoplasmosis from urine in mice using hydro-gel nanoparticles concentration and parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry.

Steinberg HE, Russo P, Angulo N, Ynocente R, Montoya C, Diestra A, Ferradas C, Schiaffino F, Florentini E, Jimenez J, Calderón M, Carruthers VB, Gilman RH, Liotta L, Luchini A.

Nanomedicine. 2018 Feb;14(2):461-469. doi: 10.1016/j.nano.2017.11.020. Epub 2017 Dec 1.


Structural Features of Apicomplexan Pore-Forming Proteins and Their Roles in Parasite Cell Traversal and Egress.

Guerra AJ, Carruthers VB.

Toxins (Basel). 2017 Aug 29;9(9). pii: E265. doi: 10.3390/toxins9090265. Review.


Toxoplasma depends on lysosomal consumption of autophagosomes for persistent infection.

Di Cristina M, Dou Z, Lunghi M, Kannan G, Huynh MH, McGovern OL, Schultz TL, Schultz AJ, Miller AJ, Hayes BM, van der Linden W, Emiliani C, Bogyo M, Besteiro S, Coppens I, Carruthers VB.

Nat Microbiol. 2017 Jun 19;2:17096. doi: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2017.96.


A Genome-wide CRISPR Screen in Toxoplasma Identifies Essential Apicomplexan Genes.

Sidik SM, Huet D, Ganesan SM, Huynh MH, Wang T, Nasamu AS, Thiru P, Saeij JPJ, Carruthers VB, Niles JC, Lourido S.

Cell. 2016 Sep 8;166(6):1423-1435.e12. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.019. Epub 2016 Sep 2.


Development of an Orally Available and Central Nervous System (CNS) Penetrant Toxoplasma gondii Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 (TgCDPK1) Inhibitor with Minimal Human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) Activity for the Treatment of Toxoplasmosis.

Vidadala RS, Rivas KL, Ojo KK, Hulverson MA, Zambriski JA, Bruzual I, Schultz TL, Huang W, Zhang Z, Scheele S, DeRocher AE, Choi R, Barrett LK, Siddaramaiah LK, Hol WG, Fan E, Merritt EA, Parsons M, Freiberg G, Marsh K, Kempf DJ, Carruthers VB, Isoherranen N, Doggett JS, Van Voorhis WC, Maly DJ.

J Med Chem. 2016 Jul 14;59(13):6531-46. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00760. Epub 2016 Jul 1.


A Toxoplasma gondii Ortholog of Plasmodium GAMA Contributes to Parasite Attachment and Cell Invasion.

Huynh MH, Carruthers VB.

mSphere. 2016 Feb 10;1(1). pii: e00012-16. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00012-16. eCollection 2016 Jan-Feb.


Toxoplasma Retromer Is Here to Stay.

McGovern OL, Carruthers VB.

Trends Parasitol. 2016 Oct;32(10):758-760. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2016 May 27.


Cerebral complement C1q activation in chronic Toxoplasma infection.

Xiao J, Li Y, Gressitt KL, He H, Kannan G, Schultz TL, Svezhova N, Carruthers VB, Pletnikov MV, Yolken RH, Severance EG.

Brain Behav Immun. 2016 Nov;58:52-56. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2016.04.009. Epub 2016 Apr 22.


A Lipolytic Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Secreted by Toxoplasma Facilitates Parasite Replication and Egress.

Pszenny V, Ehrenman K, Romano JD, Kennard A, Schultz A, Roos DS, Grigg ME, Carruthers VB, Coppens I.

J Biol Chem. 2016 Feb 19;291(8):3725-46. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M115.671974. Epub 2015 Dec 22.


Appetite for a Foodborne Infection.

Carruthers VB.

PLoS Pathog. 2015 Sep 24;11(9):e1005124. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005124. eCollection 2015 Sep. No abstract available.


Shared Immune and Repair Markers During Experimental Toxoplasma Chronic Brain Infection and Schizophrenia.

Tomasik J, Schultz TL, Kluge W, Yolken RH, Bahn S, Carruthers VB.

Schizophr Bull. 2016 Mar;42(2):386-95. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbv134. Epub 2015 Sep 20.


Alternative splicing mechanisms orchestrating post-transcriptional gene expression: intron retention and the intron-rich genome of apicomplexan parasites.

Lunghi M, Spano F, Magini A, Emiliani C, Carruthers VB, Di Cristina M.

Curr Genet. 2016 Feb;62(1):31-8. doi: 10.1007/s00294-015-0506-x. Epub 2015 Jul 21.


Parasites and their heterophagic appetite for disease.

Carruthers VB.

PLoS Pathog. 2015 May 21;11(5):e1004803. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004803. eCollection 2015 May. Review. No abstract available.


Ectopic expression of a Neospora caninum Kazal type inhibitor triggers developmental defects in Toxoplasma and Plasmodium.

Tampaki Z, Mwakubambanya RS, Goulielmaki E, Kaforou S, Kim K, Waters AP, Carruthers VB, Siden-Kiamos I, Loukeris TG, Koussis K.

PLoS One. 2015 Mar 24;10(3):e0121379. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0121379. eCollection 2015. Erratum in: PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0125852.


Expression of the glycolytic enzymes enolase and lactate dehydrogenase during the early phase of Toxoplasma differentiation is regulated by an intron retention mechanism.

Lunghi M, Galizi R, Magini A, Carruthers VB, Di Cristina M.

Mol Microbiol. 2015 Jun;96(6):1159-75. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12999. Epub 2015 Apr 11.


Structural basis of Toxoplasma gondii MIC2-associated protein interaction with MIC2.

Huynh MH, Liu B, Henry M, Liew L, Matthews SJ, Carruthers VB.

J Biol Chem. 2015 Jan 16;290(3):1432-41. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.613646. Epub 2014 Nov 19.


Acidification Activates Toxoplasma gondii Motility and Egress by Enhancing Protein Secretion and Cytolytic Activity.

Roiko MS, Svezhova N, Carruthers VB.

PLoS Pathog. 2014 Nov 6;10(11):e1004488. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004488. eCollection 2014 Nov.


A conserved apicomplexan microneme protein contributes to Toxoplasma gondii invasion and virulence.

Huynh MH, Boulanger MJ, Carruthers VB.

Infect Immun. 2014 Oct;82(10):4358-68. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01877-14. Epub 2014 Aug 4.


Toxoplasma gondii ingests and digests host cytosolic proteins.

Dou Z, McGovern OL, Di Cristina M, Carruthers VB.

mBio. 2014 Jul 15;5(4):e01188-14. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01188-14.


A vacuolar-H(+) -pyrophosphatase (TgVP1) is required for microneme secretion, host cell invasion, and extracellular survival of Toxoplasma gondii.

Liu J, Pace D, Dou Z, King TP, Guidot D, Li ZH, Carruthers VB, Moreno SN.

Mol Microbiol. 2014 Aug;93(4):698-712. doi: 10.1111/mmi.12685. Epub 2014 Jul 16.


Characterization of the chloroquine resistance transporter homologue in Toxoplasma gondii.

Warring SD, Dou Z, Carruthers VB, McFadden GI, van Dooren GG.

Eukaryot Cell. 2014 Nov;13(11):1360-70. doi: 10.1128/EC.00027-14. Epub 2014 May 23.


A thiazole derivative of artemisinin moderately reduces Toxoplasma gondii cyst burden in infected mice.

Schultz TL, Hencken CP, Woodard LE, Posner GH, Yolken RH, Jones-Brando L, Carruthers VB.

J Parasitol. 2014 Aug;100(4):516-21. doi: 10.1645/13-451.1. Epub 2014 Feb 13.


Toxoplasma gondii-induced activation of EGFR prevents autophagy protein-mediated killing of the parasite.

Muniz-Feliciano L, Van Grol J, Portillo JA, Liew L, Liu B, Carlin CR, Carruthers VB, Matthews S, Subauste CS.

PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(12):e1003809. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003809. Epub 2013 Dec 19.


Protein trafficking through the endosomal system prepares intracellular parasites for a home invasion.

Tomavo S, Slomianny C, Meissner M, Carruthers VB.

PLoS Pathog. 2013 Oct;9(10):e1003629. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003629. Epub 2013 Oct 24. Review.


A novel high throughput invasion screen identifies host actin regulators required for efficient cell entry by Toxoplasma gondii.

Gaji RY, Huynh MH, Carruthers VB.

PLoS One. 2013 May 31;8(5):e64693. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064693. Print 2013.


Recent insights into apicomplexan parasite egress provide new views to a kill.

Blackman MJ, Carruthers VB.

Curr Opin Microbiol. 2013 Aug;16(4):459-64. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2013.04.008. Epub 2013 May 28. Review.


An overexpression screen of Toxoplasma gondii Rab-GTPases reveals distinct transport routes to the micronemes.

Kremer K, Kamin D, Rittweger E, Wilkes J, Flammer H, Mahler S, Heng J, Tonkin CJ, Langsley G, Hell SW, Carruthers VB, Ferguson DJ, Meissner M.

PLoS Pathog. 2013 Mar;9(3):e1003213. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003213. Epub 2013 Mar 7.


Functional dissection of Toxoplasma gondii perforin-like protein 1 reveals a dual domain mode of membrane binding for cytolysis and parasite egress.

Roiko MS, Carruthers VB.

J Biol Chem. 2013 Mar 22;288(12):8712-25. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.450932. Epub 2013 Feb 2.


Non-canonical maturation of two papain-family proteases in Toxoplasma gondii.

Dou Z, Coppens I, Carruthers VB.

J Biol Chem. 2013 Feb 1;288(5):3523-34. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.443697. Epub 2012 Dec 18.


Endochin-like quinolones are highly efficacious against acute and latent experimental toxoplasmosis.

Doggett JS, Nilsen A, Forquer I, Wegmann KW, Jones-Brando L, Yolken RH, Bordón C, Charman SA, Katneni K, Schultz T, Burrows JN, Hinrichs DJ, Meunier B, Carruthers VB, Riscoe MK.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Sep 25;109(39):15936-41. Epub 2012 Sep 10.


Microneme protein 5 regulates the activity of Toxoplasma subtilisin 1 by mimicking a subtilisin prodomain.

Saouros S, Dou Z, Henry M, Marchant J, Carruthers VB, Matthews S.

J Biol Chem. 2012 Oct 19;287(43):36029-40. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M112.389825. Epub 2012 Aug 15.


Toxoplasma sortilin-like receptor regulates protein transport and is essential for apical secretory organelle biogenesis and host infection.

Sloves PJ, Delhaye S, Mouveaux T, Werkmeister E, Slomianny C, Hovasse A, Dilezitoko Alayi T, Callebaut I, Gaji RY, Schaeffer-Reiss C, Van Dorsselear A, Carruthers VB, Tomavo S.

Cell Host Microbe. 2012 May 17;11(5):515-27. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2012.03.006.


Biochemical and molecular characterization of the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase from Toxoplasma gondii.

Hortua Triana MA, Huynh MH, Garavito MF, Fox BA, Bzik DJ, Carruthers VB, Löffler M, Zimmermann BH.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2012 Aug;184(2):71-81. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2012.04.009. Epub 2012 May 8.


Targeted disruption of Toxoplasma gondii serine protease inhibitor 1 increases bradyzoite cyst formation in vitro and parasite tissue burden in mice.

Pszenny V, Davis PH, Zhou XW, Hunter CA, Carruthers VB, Roos DS.

Infect Immun. 2012 Mar;80(3):1156-65. doi: 10.1128/IAI.06167-11. Epub 2011 Dec 27.


Cathepsin proteases in Toxoplasma gondii.

Dou Z, Carruthers VB.

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011;712:49-61. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4419-8414-2_4. Review.


Forward targeting of Toxoplasma gondii proproteins to the micronemes involves conserved aliphatic amino acids.

Gaji RY, Flammer HP, Carruthers VB.

Traffic. 2011 Jul;12(7):840-53. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0854.2011.01192.x. Epub 2011 Apr 21.


Toxoplasma gondii toxolysin 4 is an extensively processed putative metalloproteinase secreted from micronemes.

Laliberté J, Carruthers VB.

Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011 May;177(1):49-56. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2011.01.009. Epub 2011 Jan 26.


Cell cycle-dependent, intercellular transmission of Toxoplasma gondii is accompanied by marked changes in parasite gene expression.

Gaji RY, Behnke MS, Lehmann MM, White MW, Carruthers VB.

Mol Microbiol. 2011 Jan;79(1):192-204. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07441.x. Epub 2010 Nov 9.

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